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6    <title>ReadMe for ICU 52</title>
7    <meta name="COPYRIGHT" content=
8    "Copyright (c) 1997-2013 IBM Corporation and others. All Rights Reserved." />
9    <meta name="KEYWORDS" content=
10    "ICU; International Components for Unicode; ICU4C; what's new; readme; read me; introduction; downloads; downloading; building; installation;" />
11    <meta name="DESCRIPTION" content=
12    "The introduction to the International Components for Unicode with instructions on building, installation, usage and other information about ICU." />
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18    <h1>International Components for Unicode<br />
19     <abbr title="International Components for Unicode">ICU</abbr> 52 ReadMe</h1>
21    <!--<p><b>Note:</b> This is a development milestone release of ICU4C 52.
22    This milestone is intended for those wishing to get an early look at ICU 52 new features and API changes.
23    It is not recommended for production use.</p>-->
24    <!--<p><b>Note:</b> This is a release candidate version of ICU4C 52.
25    It is not recommended for production use.</p>-->
27    <p>Last updated: 2013-Sep-30<br />
28     Copyright &copy; 1997-2013 International Business Machines Corporation and
29    others. All Rights Reserved.</p>
30    <!-- Remember that there is a copyright at the end too -->
31    <hr />
33    <h2 class="TOC">Table of Contents</h2>
35    <ul class="TOC">
36      <li><a href="#Introduction">Introduction</a></li>
38      <li><a href="#GettingStarted">Getting Started</a></li>
40      <li><a href="#News">What Is New In This release?</a></li>
42      <li><a href="#Download">How To Download the Source Code</a></li>
44      <li><a href="#SourceCode">ICU Source Code Organization</a></li>
46      <li>
47        <a href="#HowToBuild">How To Build And Install ICU</a>
49        <ul >
50          <li><a href="#RecBuild">Recommended Build Options</a></li>
52          <li><a href="#UserConfig">User-Configurable Settings</a></li>
54          <li><a href="#HowToBuildWindows">Windows</a></li>
56          <li><a href="#HowToBuildCygwin">Cygwin</a></li>
58          <li><a href="#HowToBuildUNIX">UNIX</a></li>
60          <li><a href="#HowToBuildZOS">z/OS (os/390)</a></li>
62          <li><a href="#HowToBuildOS400">IBM i family (IBM i, i5/OS, OS/400)</a></li>
64		  <li><a href="#HowToCrossCompileICU">How to Cross Compile ICU</a></li>
65        </ul>
66      </li>
69      <li><a href="#HowToPackage">How To Package ICU</a></li>
71      <li>
72        <a href="#ImportantNotes">Important Notes About Using ICU</a>
74        <ul >
75          <li><a href="#ImportantNotesMultithreaded">Using ICU in a Multithreaded
76          Environment</a></li>
78          <li><a href="#ImportantNotesWindows">Windows Platform</a></li>
80          <li><a href="#ImportantNotesUNIX">UNIX Type Platforms</a></li>
81        </ul>
82      </li>
84      <li>
85        <a href="#PlatformDependencies">Platform Dependencies</a>
87        <ul >
88          <li><a href="#PlatformDependenciesNew">Porting To A New
89          Platform</a></li>
91          <li><a href="#PlatformDependenciesImpl">Platform Dependent
92          Implementations</a></li>
93        </ul>
94      </li>
95    </ul>
96    <hr />
98    <h2><a name="Introduction" href="#Introduction" id=
99    "Introduction">Introduction</a></h2>
101    <p>Today's software market is a global one in which it is desirable to
102    develop and maintain one application (single source/single binary) that
103    supports a wide variety of languages. The International Components for
104    Unicode (ICU) libraries provide robust and full-featured Unicode services on
105    a wide variety of platforms to help this design goal. The ICU libraries
106    provide support for:</p>
108    <ul>
109      <li>The latest version of the Unicode standard</li>
111      <li>Character set conversions with support for over 220 codepages</li>
113      <li>Locale data for more than 300 locales</li>
115      <li>Language sensitive text collation (sorting) and searching based on the
116      Unicode Collation Algorithm (=ISO 14651)</li>
118      <li>Regular expression matching and Unicode sets</li>
120      <li>Transformations for normalization, upper/lowercase, script
121      transliterations (50+ pairs)</li>
123      <li>Resource bundles for storing and accessing localized information</li>
125      <li>Date/Number/Message formatting and parsing of culture specific
126      input/output formats</li>
128      <li>Calendar specific date and time manipulation</li>
130      <li>Complex text layout for Arabic, Hebrew, Indic and Thai</li>
132      <li>Text boundary analysis for finding characters, word and sentence
133      boundaries</li>
134    </ul>
136    <p>ICU has a sister project ICU4J that extends the internationalization
137    capabilities of Java to a level similar to ICU. The ICU C/C++ project is also
138    called ICU4C when a distinction is necessary.</p>
140    <h2><a name="GettingStarted" href="#GettingStarted" id=
141    "GettingStarted">Getting started</a></h2>
143    <p>This document describes how to build and install ICU on your machine. For
144    other information about ICU please see the following table of links.<br />
145     The ICU homepage also links to related information about writing
146    internationalized software.</p>
148    <table class="docTable" summary="These are some useful links regarding ICU and internationalization in general.">
149      <caption>
150        Here are some useful links regarding ICU and internationalization in
151        general.
152      </caption>
154      <tr>
155        <td>ICU, ICU4C &amp; ICU4J Homepage</td>
157        <td><a href=
158        "http://icu-project.org/">http://icu-project.org/</a></td>
159      </tr>
161      <tr>
162        <td>FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions about ICU</td>
164        <td><a href=
165        "http://userguide.icu-project.org/icufaq">http://userguide.icu-project.org/icufaq</a></td>
166      </tr>
168      <tr>
169        <td>ICU User's Guide</td>
171        <td><a href=
172        "http://userguide.icu-project.org/">http://userguide.icu-project.org/</a></td>
173      </tr>
175      <tr>
176        <td>How To Use ICU</td>
178        <td><a href="http://userguide.icu-project.org/howtouseicu">http://userguide.icu-project.org/howtouseicu</a></td>
179      </tr>
181      <tr>
182        <td>Download ICU Releases</td>
184        <td><a href=
185        "http://site.icu-project.org/download">http://site.icu-project.org/download</a></td>
186      </tr>
188      <tr>
189        <td>ICU4C API Documentation Online</td>
191        <td><a href=
192        "http://icu-project.org/apiref/icu4c/">http://icu-project.org/apiref/icu4c/</a></td>
193      </tr>
195      <tr>
196        <td>Online ICU Demos</td>
198        <td><a href=
199        "http://demo.icu-project.org/icu-bin/icudemos">http://demo.icu-project.org/icu-bin/icudemos</a></td>
200      </tr>
202      <tr>
203        <td>Contacts and Bug Reports/Feature Requests</td>
205        <td><a href=
206        "http://site.icu-project.org/contacts">http://site.icu-project.org/contacts</a></td>
207      </tr>
208    </table>
210    <p><strong>Important:</strong> Please make sure you understand the <a href=
211    "license.html">Copyright and License Information</a>.</p>
213    <h2><a name="News" href="#News" id="News">What is new in this
214    release?</a></h2>
216    <p>To see which APIs are new or changed in this release, view the <a href="APIChangeReport.html">ICU4C API Change Report</a>. </p>
218    <!-- ICU 52 items -->
219    <h3>DecimalFormat - two functions marked as const</h3>
220    <p>
221      <tt>DecimalFormat::isScientificNotation</tt> and <tt>DecimalFormat::isExponentSignAlwaysShown</tt>
222      are now const member functions. DecimalFormat is not recommended for subclassing.
223    </p>
225    <h3>CollationElementIterator protected methods became private</h3>
226    <p>The C++ CollationElementIterator (CEI) had two protected constructors
227    (called only by RuleBasedCollator CEI factory methods)
228    and a protected assignment operator.
229    The class documentation says "CollationElementIterator should not be subclassed",
230    and it cannot be subclassed effectively.
231    The protected methods were made private and might be removed altogether.
232    For details see <a href="http://bugs.icu-project.org/trac/ticket/10251">ticket #10251</a>.</p>
233    <!-- end ICU 52 items -->
235    <p>The following list concentrates on <em>changes that affect existing
236    applications migrating from previous ICU releases</em>.
237    For more news about this release, see the
239    <a href="http://site.icu-project.org/download/52">ICU download page</a>.
241<!--    <a href="http://site.icu-project.org/download/milestone">ICU milestone download page</a>.
242    </p>-->
244    <h3>C++ BasicTimeZone subclassing-API breaking changes</h3>
245    <p>We have made make some changes to the C++ BasicTimeZone(basictz.h) for ICU 51
246    that will make it easier to use some time zone support features found in BasicTimeZone
247    (basictz.h), but the changes are incompatible for subclasses. If there are subclasses,
248    they will have to be modified as well.</p>
250    <p>BasicTimeZone is a subclass of TimeZone and providing some enhanced features, such as
251    getNextTransition and getPreviousTransition. The class is used as the base class of all
252    of ICU's time zone implementation classes. User Classes directly extending TimeZone and
253    consumers of ICU TimeZone implementation classes are not affected by the changes.</p>
255    <p>For details see the email "ICU4C C++ BasicTimeZone subclassing-API breaking changes"
256    sent on 2013-Feb-5 to the icu-support
257    <a href="http://site.icu-project.org/contacts">mailing lists</a>,
258    and <a href="http://bugs.icu-project.org/trac/ticket/9648">ICU ticket #9648</a>.</p>
260    <h3>Date format pattern "V"</h3>
261    <p>The date format pattern "V" was introduced in ICU 3.8 (inherited from CLDR 1.5) as
262    a variation of pattern "z" to support time zone abbreviation format such as "PST".
263    The pattern "z" prints out a time zone abbreviation only when it is commonly used for a locale.
264    The pattern "V" was slightly different from pattern "z" and the pattern designates
265    a time zone abbreviation even it is not commonly used for a locale. For example, time
266    zone abbreviation "AEST" for Australian Eastern Standard Time might not be well recognized
267    by people in the United States. For the zone, pattern "z" does not use "AEST" (instead, use
268    UTC offset format "GMT+10:00", as the fallback) , while pattern "V" used to print out "AEST".
269    In CLDR 21, the data used for checking commonly used or not was completely removed (CLDR
270    ticket <a href="http://unicode.org/cldr/trac/ticket/4052">#4052</a>), so the difference
271    between pattern "z" and "V" is no longer available since ICU 49 (based on CLDR 21 specification).</p>
273    <p>In CLDR 23, the CLDR technical committee decided to reuse the semantically deprecated
274    pattern "V" for a different purpose. With the new specification, the date format pattern
275    "V" is used for short time zone IDs, such as "uslax" for zone America/Los_Angeles. ICU 51
276    implements the new specification. So existing ICU users currently using custom date format
277    patterns with pattern "V" are suggested to change them to pattern "z".</p>
279   <p>Note that the existing pattern "VVVV" for a time zone's generic location name is not
280   affected by the new specification and the pattern "VVVV" continues to work as same as
281   previous ICU releases.</p>
283    <h2><a name="Download" href="#Download" id="Download">How To Download the
284    Source Code</a></h2>
286    <p>There are two ways to download ICU releases:</p>
288    <ul>
289      <li><strong>Official Release Snapshot:</strong><br />
290       If you want to use ICU (as opposed to developing it), you should download
291      an official packaged version of the ICU source code. These versions are
292      tested more thoroughly than day-to-day development builds of the system,
293      and they are packaged in zip and tar files for convenient download. These
294      packaged files can be found at <a href=
295      "http://site.icu-project.org/download">http://site.icu-project.org/download</a>.<br />
296       The packaged snapshots are named <strong>icu-nnnn.zip</strong> or
297      <strong>icu-nnnn.tgz</strong>, where nnnn is the version number. The .zip
298      file is used for Windows platforms, while the .tgz file is preferred on
299      most other platforms.<br />
300       Please unzip this file. </li>
302      <li><strong>Subversion Source Repository:</strong><br />
303       If you are interested in developing features, patches, or bug fixes for
304      ICU, you should probably be working with the latest version of the ICU
305      source code. You will need to check the code out of our Subversion repository to
306      ensure that you have the most recent version of all of the files. See our
307      <a href="http://site.icu-project.org/repository">source
308      repository</a> for details.</li>
309    </ul>
311    <h2><a name="SourceCode" href="#SourceCode" id="SourceCode">ICU Source Code
312    Organization</a></h2>
314    <p>In the descriptions below, <strong><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i></strong> is the full
315    path name of the ICU directory (the top level directory from the distribution
316    archives) in your file system. You can also view the <a href=
317    "http://userguide.icu-project.org/design">ICU Architectural
318    Design</a> section of the User's Guide to see which libraries you need for
319    your software product. You need at least the data (<code>[lib]icudt</code>)
320    and the common (<code>[lib]icuuc</code>) libraries in order to use ICU.</p>
322    <table class="docTable" summary="The following files describe the code drop.">
323      <caption>
324        The following files describe the code drop.
325      </caption>
327      <tr>
328        <th scope="col">File</th>
330        <th scope="col">Description</th>
331      </tr>
333      <tr>
334        <td>readme.html</td>
336        <td>Describes the International Components for Unicode (this file)</td>
337      </tr>
339      <tr>
340        <td>license.html</td>
342        <td>Contains the text of the ICU license</td>
343      </tr>
344    </table>
346    <p><br />
347    </p>
349    <table class="docTable" summary=
350    "The following directories contain source code and data files.">
351      <caption>
352        The following directories contain source code and data files.
353      </caption>
355      <tr>
356        <th scope="col">Directory</th>
358        <th scope="col">Description</th>
359      </tr>
361      <tr>
362        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>common</b>/</td>
364        <td>The core Unicode and support functionality, such as resource bundles,
365        character properties, locales, codepage conversion, normalization,
366        Unicode properties, Locale, and UnicodeString.</td>
367      </tr>
369      <tr>
370        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>i18n</b>/</td>
372        <td>Modules in i18n are generally the more data-driven, that is to say
373        resource bundle driven, components. These deal with higher-level
374        internationalization issues such as formatting, collation, text break
375        analysis, and transliteration.</td>
376      </tr>
378      <tr>
379        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>layout</b>/</td>
381        <td>Contains the ICU layout engine (not a rasterizer).</td>
382      </tr>
384      <tr>
385        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>io</b>/</td>
387        <td>Contains the ICU I/O library.</td>
388      </tr>
390      <tr>
391        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>data</b>/</td>
393        <td>
394          <p>This directory contains the source data in text format, which is
395          compiled into binary form during the ICU build process. It contains
396          several subdirectories, in which the data files are grouped by
397          function. Note that the build process must be run again after any
398          changes are made to this directory.</p>
400          <p>If some of the following directories are missing, it's probably
401          because you got an official download. If you need the data source files
402          for customization, then please download the ICU source code from <a
403          href="http://site.icu-project.org/repository">subversion</a>.</p>
405          <ul>
406            <li><b>in/</b> A directory that contains a pre-built data library for
407            ICU. A standard source code package will contain this file without
408            several of the following directories. This is to simplify the build
409            process for the majority of users and to reduce platform porting
410            issues.</li>
412            <li><b>brkitr/</b> Data files for character, word, sentence, title
413            casing and line boundary analysis.</li>
415            <li><b>locales/</b> These .txt files contain ICU language and
416            culture-specific localization data. Two special bundles are
417            <b>root</b>, which is the fallback data and parent of other bundles,
418            and <b>index</b>, which contains a list of installed bundles. The
419            makefile <b>resfiles.mk</b> contains the list of resource bundle
420            files.</li>
422            <li><b>mappings/</b> Here are the code page converter tables. These
423            .ucm files contain mappings to and from Unicode. These are compiled
424            into .cnv files. <b>convrtrs.txt</b> is the alias mapping table from
425            various converter name formats to ICU internal format and vice versa.
426            It produces cnvalias.icu. The makefiles <b>ucmfiles.mk,
427            ucmcore.mk,</b> and <b>ucmebcdic.mk</b> contain the list of
428            converters to be built.</li>
430            <li><b>translit/</b> This directory contains transliterator rules as
431            resource bundles, a makefile <b>trnsfiles.mk</b> containing the list
432            of installed system translitaration files, and as well the special
433            bundle <b>translit_index</b> which lists the system transliterator
434            aliases.</li>
436            <li><b>unidata/</b> This directory contains the Unicode data files.
437            Please see <a href=
438            "http://www.unicode.org/">http://www.unicode.org/</a> for more
439            information.</li>
441            <li><b>misc/</b> The misc directory contains other data files which
442            did not fit into the above categories. Currently it only contains
443            time zone information, and a name preperation file for <a href=
444            "http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3490.txt">IDNA</a>.</li>
446            <li><b>out/</b> This directory contains the assembled memory mapped
447            files.</li>
449            <li><b>out/build/</b> This directory contains intermediate (compiled)
450            files, such as .cnv, .res, etc.</li>
451          </ul>
453          <p>If you are creating a special ICU build, you can set the ICU_DATA
454          environment variable to the out/ or the out/build/ directories, but
455          this is generally discouraged because most people set it incorrectly.
456          You can view the <a href=
457          "http://userguide.icu-project.org/icudata">ICU Data
458          Management</a> section of the ICU User's Guide for details.</p>
459        </td>
460      </tr>
462      <tr>
463        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/test/<b>intltest</b>/</td>
465        <td>A test suite including all C++ APIs. For information about running
466        the test suite, see the build instructions specific to your platform
467        later in this document.</td>
468      </tr>
470      <tr>
471        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/test/<b>cintltst</b>/</td>
473        <td>A test suite written in C, including all C APIs. For information
474        about running the test suite, see the build instructions specific to your
475        platform later in this document.</td>
476      </tr>
478      <tr>
479        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/test/<b>iotest</b>/</td>
481        <td>A test suite written in C and C++ to test the icuio library. For
482        information about running the test suite, see the build instructions
483        specific to your platform later in this document.</td>
484      </tr>
486      <tr>
487        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/test/<b>testdata</b>/</td>
489        <td>Source text files for data, which are read by the tests. It contains
490        the subdirectories <b>out/build/</b> which is used for intermediate
491        files, and <b>out/</b> which contains <b>testdata.dat.</b></td>
492      </tr>
494      <tr>
495        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>tools</b>/</td>
497        <td>Tools for generating the data files. Data files are generated by
498        invoking <i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/data/build/makedata.bat on Win32 or
499        <i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/make on UNIX.</td>
500      </tr>
502      <tr>
503        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>samples</b>/</td>
505        <td>Various sample programs that use ICU</td>
506      </tr>
508      <tr>
509        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>extra</b>/</td>
511        <td>Non-supported API additions. Currently, it contains the 'uconv' tool
512        to perform codepage conversion on files.</td>
513      </tr>
515      <tr>
516        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/<b>packaging</b>/</td>
518        <td>This directory contain scripts and tools for packaging the final
519        ICU build for various release platforms.</td>
520      </tr>
522      <tr>
523        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>config</b>/</td>
525        <td>Contains helper makefiles for platform specific build commands. Used
526        by 'configure'.</td>
527      </tr>
529      <tr>
530        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>allinone</b>/</td>
532        <td>Contains top-level ICU workspace and project files, for instance to
533        build all of ICU under one MSVC project.</td>
534      </tr>
536      <tr>
537        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/<b>include</b>/</td>
539        <td>Contains the headers needed for developing software that uses ICU on
540        Windows.</td>
541      </tr>
543      <tr>
544        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/<b>lib</b>/</td>
546        <td>Contains the import libraries for linking ICU into your Windows
547        application.</td>
548      </tr>
550      <tr>
551        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/<b>bin</b>/</td>
553        <td>Contains the libraries and executables for using ICU on Windows.</td>
554      </tr>
555    </table>
556    <!-- end of ICU structure ==================================== -->
558    <h2><a name="HowToBuild" href="#HowToBuild" id="HowToBuild">How To Build And
559    Install ICU</a></h2>
561    <h3><a name="RecBuild" href="#RecBuild" id=
562    "RecBuild">Recommended Build Options</a></h3>
564    <p>Depending on the platform and the type of installation,
565    we recommend a small number of modifications and build options.</p>
566    <ul>
567      <li><b>Namespace:</b> By default, unicode/uversion.h has
568        "using namespace icu;" which defeats much of the purpose of the namespace.
569        (This is for historical reasons: Originally, ICU4C did not use namespaces,
570        and some compilers did not support them. The default "using" statement
571        preserves source code compatibility.)<br />
572        We recommend you turn this off via <code>-DU_USING_ICU_NAMESPACE=0</code>
573        or by modifying unicode/uversion.h:
574<pre>Index: source/common/unicode/uversion.h
576--- source/common/unicode/uversion.h    (revision 26606)
577+++ source/common/unicode/uversion.h    (working copy)
578@@ -180,7 +180,8 @@
581 #   ifndef U_USING_ICU_NAMESPACE
582-#       define U_USING_ICU_NAMESPACE 1
583+        // Set to 0 to force namespace declarations in ICU usage.
584+#       define U_USING_ICU_NAMESPACE 0
585 #   endif
587         U_NAMESPACE_USE
589        ICU call sites then either qualify ICU types explicitly,
590        for example <code>icu::UnicodeString</code>,
591        or do <code>using icu::UnicodeString;</code> where appropriate.</li>
592      <li><b>Hardcode the default charset to UTF-8:</b> On platforms where
593        the default charset is always UTF-8,
594        like MacOS X and some Linux distributions,
595        we recommend hardcoding ICU's default charset to UTF-8.
596        This means that some implementation code becomes simpler and faster,
597        and statically linked ICU libraries become smaller.
598        (See the <a href="http://icu-project.org/apiref/icu4c/utypes_8h.html#0a33e1edf3cd23d9e9c972b63c9f7943">U_CHARSET_IS_UTF8</a>
599        API documentation for more details.)<br />
600        You can <code>-DU_CHARSET_IS_UTF8=1</code> or
601        modify unicode/utypes.h (in ICU 4.8 and below)
602        or modify unicode/platform.h (in ICU 49 and higher):
603<pre>Index: source/common/unicode/utypes.h
605--- source/common/unicode/utypes.h      (revision 26606)
606+++ source/common/unicode/utypes.h      (working copy)
607@@ -160,7 +160,7 @@
609  */
610 #ifndef U_CHARSET_IS_UTF8
611-#   define U_CHARSET_IS_UTF8 0
612+#   define U_CHARSET_IS_UTF8 1
613 #endif
615 /*===========================================================================*/
617      <li><b>UnicodeString constructors:</b> The UnicodeString class has
618        several single-argument constructors that are not marked "explicit"
619        for historical reasons.
620        This can lead to inadvertent construction of a <code>UnicodeString</code>
621        with a single character by using an integer,
622        and it can lead to inadvertent dependency on the conversion framework
623        by using a C string literal.<br />
624        Beginning with ICU 49, you should do the following:
625        <ul>
626          <li>Consider marking the from-<code>UChar</code>
627            and from-<code>UChar32</code> constructors explicit via
628            <code>-DUNISTR_FROM_CHAR_EXPLICIT=explicit</code> or similar.</li>
629          <li>Consider marking the from-<code>const char*</code> and
630            from-<code>const UChar*</code> constructors explicit via
631            <code>-DUNISTR_FROM_STRING_EXPLICIT=explicit</code> or similar.</li>
632        </ul>
633        Note: The ICU test suites cannot be compiled with these settings.
634      </li>
635      <li><b>utf.h, utf8.h, utf16.h, utf_old.h:</b>
636        By default, utypes.h (and thus almost every public ICU header)
637        includes all of these header files.
638        Often, none of them are needed, or only one or two of them.
639        All of utf_old.h is deprecated or obsolete.<br />
640        Beginning with ICU 49,
641        you should define <code>U_NO_DEFAULT_INCLUDE_UTF_HEADERS</code> to 1
642        (via -D or uconfig.h, as above)
643        and include those header files explicitly that you actually need.<br />
644        Note: The ICU test suites cannot be compiled with this setting.</li>
645      <li><b>.dat file:</b> By default, the ICU data is built into
646        a shared library (DLL). This is convenient because it requires no
647        install-time or runtime configuration,
648        but the library is platform-specific and cannot be modified.
649        A .dat package file makes the opposite trade-off:
650        Platform-portable (except for endianness and charset family, which
651        can be changed with the icupkg tool)
652        and modifiable (also with the icupkg tool).
653        If a path is set, then single data files (e.g., .res files)
654        can be copied to that location to provide new locale data
655        or conversion tables etc.<br />
656        The only drawback with a .dat package file is that the application
657        needs to provide ICU with the file system path to the package file
658        (e.g., by calling <code>u_setDataDirectory()</code>)
659        or with a pointer to the data (<code>udata_setCommonData()</code>)
660        before other ICU API calls.
661        This is usually easy if ICU is used from an application where
662        <code>main()</code> takes care of such initialization.
663        It may be hard if ICU is shipped with
664        another shared library (such as the Xerces-C++ XML parser)
665        which does not control <code>main()</code>.<br />
666        See the <a href="http://userguide.icu-project.org/icudata">User Guide ICU Data</a>
667        chapter for more details.<br />
668        If possible, we recommend building the .dat package.
669        Specify <code>--with-data-packaging=archive</code>
670        on the configure command line, as in<br />
671        <code>runConfigureICU Linux --with-data-packaging=archive</code><br />
672        (Read the configure script's output for further instructions.
673        On Windows, the Visual Studio build generates both the .dat package
674        and the data DLL.)<br />
675        Be sure to install and use the tiny stubdata library
676        rather than the large data DLL.</li>
677      <li><b>Static libraries:</b> It may make sense to build the ICU code
678        into static libraries (.a) rather than shared libraries (.so/.dll).
679        Static linking reduces the overall size of the binary by removing
680        code that is never called.<br />
681        Example configure command line:<br />
682        <code>runConfigureICU Linux --enable-static --disable-shared</code></li>
683      <li><b>Out-of-source build:</b> It is usually desirable to keep the ICU
684        source file tree clean and have build output files written to
685        a different location. This is called an "out-of-source build".
686        Simply invoke the configure script from the target location:
687<pre>~/icu$ svn export http://source.icu-project.org/repos/icu/icu/trunk
688~/icu$ mkdir trunk-dev
689~/icu$ cd trunk-dev
690~/icu/trunk-dev$ /trunk/source/runConfigureICU Linux
691~/icu/trunk-dev$ make check</pre></li>
692    </ul>
693    <h4>ICU as a System-Level Library</h4>
694    <p>If ICU is installed as a system-level library, there are further
695      opportunities and restrictions to consider.
696      For details, see the <em>Using ICU as an Operating System Level Library</em>
697      section of the <a href="http://userguide.icu-project.org/design">User Guide ICU Architectural Design</a> chapter.</p>
698    <ul>
699      <li><b>Data path:</b> For a system-level library, it is best to load
700        ICU data from the .dat package file because the file system path
701        to the .dat package file can be hardcoded. ICU will automatically set
702        the path to the final install location using U_ICU_DATA_DEFAULT_DIR.
703        Alternatively, you can set <code>-DICU_DATA_DIR=/path/to/icu/data</code>
704        when building the ICU code. (Used by source/common/putil.c.)<br />
705        Consider also setting <code>-DICU_NO_USER_DATA_OVERRIDE</code>
706        if you do not want the "ICU_DATA" environment variable to be used.
707        (An application can still override the data path via
708        <code>u_setDataDirectory()</code> or
709        <code>udata_setCommonData()</code>.</li>
710      <li><b>Hide draft API:</b> API marked with <code>@draft</code>
711        is new and not yet stable. Applications must not rely on unstable
712        APIs from a system-level library.
713        Define <code>U_HIDE_DRAFT_API</code>, <code>U_HIDE_INTERNAL_API</code>
714        and <code>U_HIDE_SYSTEM_API</code>
715        by modifying unicode/utypes.h before installing it.</li>
716      <li><b>Only C APIs:</b> Applications must not rely on C++ APIs from a
717        system-level library because binary C++ compatibility
718        across library and compiler versions is very hard to achieve.
719        Most ICU C++ APIs are in header files that contain a comment with
720        <code>\brief C++ API</code>.
721        Consider not installing these header files.</li>
722      <li><b>Disable renaming:</b> By default, ICU library entry point names
723        have an ICU version suffix. Turn this off for a system-level installation,
724        to enable upgrading ICU without breaking applications. For example:<br />
725        <code>runConfigureICU Linux --disable-renaming</code><br />
726        The public header files from this configuration must be installed
727        for applications to include and get the correct entry point names.</li>
728    </ul>
730    <h3><a name="UserConfig" href="#UserConfig" id="UserConfig">User-Configurable Settings</a></h3>
731    <p>ICU4C can be customized via a number of user-configurable settings.
732    Many of them are controlled by preprocessor macros which are
733    defined in the <code>source/common/unicode/uconfig.h</code> header file.
734    Some turn off parts of ICU, for example conversion or collation,
735    trading off a smaller library for reduced functionality.
736    Other settings are recommended (see previous section)
737    but their default values are set for better source code compatibility.</p>
739    <p>In order to change such user-configurable settings, you can
740    either modify the <code>uconfig.h</code> header file by adding
741    a specific <code>#define ...</code> for one or more of the macros
742    before they are first tested,
743    or set the compiler's preprocessor flags (<code>CPPFLAGS</code>) to include
744    an equivalent <code>-D</code> macro definition.</p>
746    <h3><a name="HowToBuildWindows" href="#HowToBuildWindows" id=
747    "HowToBuildWindows">How To Build And Install On Windows</a></h3>
749    <p>Building International Components for Unicode requires:</p>
751    <ul>
752      <li>Microsoft Windows</li>
754      <li>Microsoft Visual C++</li>
756      <li><a href="#HowToBuildCygwin">Cygwin</a> is required when other versions
757      of Microsoft Visual C++ and other compilers are used to build ICU.</li>
758    </ul>
760    <p>The steps are:</p>
762    <ol>
763      <li>Unzip the icu-XXXX.zip file into any convenient location. Using command
764      line zip, type "unzip -a icu-XXXX.zip -d drive:\directory", or just use
765      WinZip.</li>
767      <li>Be sure that the ICU binary directory, <i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\bin\, is
768      included in the <strong>PATH</strong> environment variable. The tests will
769      not work without the location of the ICU DLL files in the path.</li>
771      <li>Open the "<i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\source\allinone\allinone.sln" workspace
772      file in Microsoft Visual Studio. (This solution includes all the
773      International Components for Unicode libraries, necessary ICU building
774      tools, and the test suite projects). Please see the <a href=
775      "#HowToBuildWindowsCommandLine">command line note below</a> if you want to
776      build from the command line instead.</li>
778      <li>Set the active platform to "Win32" or "x64" (See <a href="#HowToBuildWindowsPlatform">Windows platform note</a> below)
779      and configuration to "Debug" or "Release" (See <a href="#HowToBuildWindowsConfig">Windows configuration note</a> below).</li>
781      <li>Choose the "Build" menu and select "Rebuild Solution". If you want to
782      build the Debug and Release at the same time, see the <a href=
783      "#HowToBuildWindowsBatch">batch configuration note</a> below.</li>
786      <li>Run the tests. They can be run from the command line or from within Visual Studio.
788	 <h4>Running the Tests from the Windows Command Line (cmd)</h4>
789	<ul>
790	   <li>For x86 (32 bit) and Debug, use: <br />
792	<tt><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\source\allinone\icucheck.bat  <i>Platform</i> <i>Configuration</i>
793		</tt> <br />
794       </li>
795	<li>So, for example:
796				 <br />
797		<tt><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\source\allinone\icucheck.bat  <b>x86</b> <b>Debug</b>
798		</tt>
799				<br/>  or <br />
800		<tt><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\source\allinone\icucheck.bat  <b>x86</b> <b>Release</b>
801		</tt>
802				<br/>  or <br />
803		<tt><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\source\allinone\icucheck.bat  <b>x64</b> <b>Release</b>
804		</tt></li>
805	</ul>
807         <h4>Running the Tests from within Visual Studio</h4>
809	<ol>
810      <li>Run the C++ test suite, "intltest". To do this: set the active startup
811      project to "intltest", and press Ctrl+F5 to run it. Make sure that it
812      passes without any errors.</li>
814      <li>Run the C test suite, "cintltst". To do this: set the active startup
815      project to "cintltst", and press Ctrl+F5 to run it. Make sure that it
816      passes without any errors.</li>
818      <li>Run the I/O test suite, "iotest". To do this: set the active startup
819      project to "iotest", and press Ctrl+F5 to run it. Make sure that it passes
820      without any errors.</li>
822	</ol>
824	</li>
826      <li>You are now able to develop applications with ICU by using the
827      libraries and tools in <i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\bin\. The headers are in
828      <i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\include\ and the link libraries are in
829      <i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\lib\. To install the ICU runtime on a machine, or ship
830      it with your application, copy the needed components from
831      <i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\bin\ to a location on the system PATH or to your
832      application directory.</li>
833    </ol>
835    <p><a name="HowToBuildWindowsCommandLine" id=
836    "HowToBuildWindowsCommandLine"><strong>Using MSDEV At The Command Line
837    Note:</strong></a> You can build ICU from the command line. Assuming that you
838    have properly installed Microsoft Visual C++ to support command line
839    execution, you can run the following command, 'devenv.com
840    <i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\source\allinone\allinone.sln /build "Win32|Release"'. You can also
841    use Cygwin with this compiler to build ICU, and you can refer to the <a href=
842    "#HowToBuildCygwin">How To Build And Install On Windows with Cygwin</a>
843    section for more details.</p>
845    <p><a name="HowToBuildWindowsPlatform" id=
846    "HowToBuildWindowsPlatform"><strong>Setting Active Platform
847    Note:</strong></a> Even though you are able to select "x64" as the active platform, if your operating system is
848    not a 64 bit version of Windows, the build will fail. To set the active platform, two different possibilities are:</p>
850    <ul>
851      <li>Choose "Build" menu, select "Configuration Manager...", and select
852      "Win32" or "x64" for the Active Platform Solution.</li>
854      <li>Another way is to select the desired build configuration from "Solution
855      Platforms" dropdown menu from the standard toolbar. It will say
856      "Win32" or "x64" in the dropdown list.</li>
857    </ul>
859    <p><a name="HowToBuildWindowsConfig" id=
860    "HowToBuildWindowsConfig"><strong>Setting Active Configuration
861    Note:</strong></a> To set the active configuration, two different
862    possibilities are:</p>
864    <ul>
865      <li>Choose "Build" menu, select "Configuration Manager...", and select
866      "Release" or "Debug" for the Active Configuration Solution.</li>
868      <li>Another way is to select the desired build configuration from "Solution
869      Configurations" dropdown menu from the standard toolbar. It will say
870      "Release" or "Debug" in the dropdown list.</li>
871    </ul>
873    <p><a name="HowToBuildWindowsBatch" id="HowToBuildWindowsBatch"><strong>Batch
874    Configuration Note:</strong></a> If you want to build the Win32 and x64 platforms and
875    Debug and Release configurations at the same time, choose "Build" menu, and select "Batch
876    Build...". Click the "Select All" button, and then click the "Rebuild"
877    button.</p>
879    <h3><a name="HowToBuildCygwin" href="#HowToBuildCygwin" id=
880    "HowToBuildCygwin">How To Build And Install On Windows with Cygwin</a></h3>
882    <p>Building International Components for Unicode with this configuration
883    requires:</p>
885    <ul>
886      <li>Microsoft Windows</li>
888      <li>Microsoft Visual C++ (when gcc isn't used).</li>
890      <li>
891        Cygwin with the following installed:
893        <ul>
894          <li>bash</li>
896          <li>GNU make</li>
898          <li>ar</li>
900          <li>ranlib</li>
902          <li>man (if you plan to look at the man pages)</li>
903        </ul>
904      </li>
905    </ul>
907    <p>There are two ways you can build ICU with Cygwin. You can build with gcc
908    or Microsoft Visual C++. If you use gcc, the resulting libraries and tools
909    will depend on the Cygwin environment. If you use Microsoft Visual C++, the
910    resulting libraries and tools do not depend on Cygwin and can be more easily
911    distributed to other Windows computers (the generated man pages and shell
912    scripts still need Cygwin). To build with gcc, please follow the "<a href=
913    "#HowToBuildUNIX">How To Build And Install On UNIX</a>" instructions, while
914    you are inside a Cygwin bash shell. To build with Microsoft Visual C++,
915    please use the following instructions:</p>
917    <ol>
918      <li>Start the Windows "Command Prompt" window. This is different from the
919      gcc build, which requires the Cygwin Bash command prompt. The Microsoft
920      Visual C++ compiler will not work with a bash command prompt.</li>
922      <li>If the computer isn't set up to use Visual C++ from the command line,
923      you need to run vcvars32.bat.<br />For example:<br />"<tt>C:\Program Files\Microsoft
924      Visual Studio 8\VC\bin\vcvars32.bat</tt>" can be used for 32-bit builds
925      <strong>or</strong> <br />"<tt>C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio
926      8\VC\bin\amd64\vcvarsamd64.bat</tt>" can be used for 64-bit builds on
927      Windows x64.</li>
929      <li>Unzip the icu-XXXX.zip file into any convenient location. Using command
930      line zip, type "unzip -a icu-XXXX.zip -d drive:\directory", or just use
931      WinZip.</li>
933      <li>Change directory to "icu/source", which is where you unzipped ICU.</li>
935      <li>Run "<tt>bash <a href="source/runConfigureICU">/runConfigureICU</a>
936      Cygwin/MSVC</tt>" (See <a href="#HowToWindowsConfigureICU">Windows
937      configuration note</a> and non-functional configure options below).</li>
939      <li>Type <tt>"make"</tt> to compile the libraries and all the data files.
940      This make command should be GNU make.</li>
942      <li>Optionally, type <tt>"make check"</tt> to run the test suite, which
943      checks for ICU's functionality integrity (See <a href=
944      "#HowToTestWithoutGmake">testing note</a> below).</li>
946      <li>Type <tt>"make install"</tt> to install ICU. If you used the --prefix=
947      option on configure or runConfigureICU, ICU will be installed to the
948      directory you specified. (See <a href="#HowToInstallICU">installation
949      note</a> below).</li>
950    </ol>
952    <p><a name="HowToWindowsConfigureICU" id=
953    "HowToWindowsConfigureICU"><strong>Configuring ICU on Windows
954    NOTE:</strong></a> </p>
955    <p>
956    Ensure that the order of the PATH is MSVC, Cygwin, and then other PATHs. The configure
957    script needs certain tools in Cygwin (e.g. grep).
958    </p>
959    <p>
960    Also, you may need to run <tt>"dos2unix.exe"</tt> on all of the scripts (e.g. configure)
961    in the top source directory of ICU. To avoid this issue, you can download
962    the ICU source for Unix platforms (icu-xxx.tgz).
963    </p>
964    <p>In addition to the Unix <a href=
965    "#HowToConfigureICU">configuration note</a> the following configure options
966    currently do not work on Windows with Microsoft's compiler. Some options can
967    work by manually editing <tt>icu/source/common/unicode/pwin32.h</tt>, but
968    manually editing the files is not recommended.</p>
970    <ul>
971      <li><tt>--disable-renaming</tt></li>
973      <li><tt>--enable-tracing</tt></li>
975      <li><tt>--enable-rpath</tt></li>
977      <li><tt>--enable-static</tt> (Requires that U_STATIC_IMPLEMENTATION be
978      defined in user code that links against ICU's static libraries.)</li>
980      <li><tt>--with-data-packaging=files</tt> (The pkgdata tool currently does
981      not work in this mode. Manual packaging is required to use this mode.)</li>
982    </ul>
984    <h3><a name="HowToBuildUNIX" href="#HowToBuildUNIX" id="HowToBuildUNIX">How
985    To Build And Install On UNIX</a></h3>
987    <p>Building International Components for Unicode on UNIX requires:</p>
989    <ul>
990      <li>A C++ compiler installed on the target machine (for example: gcc, CC,
991      xlC_r, aCC, cxx, etc...).</li>
993      <li>An ANSI C compiler installed on the target machine (for example:
994      cc).</li>
996      <li>A recent version of GNU make (3.80+).</li>
998      <li>For a list of z/OS tools please view the <a href="#HowToBuildZOS">z/OS
999      build section</a> of this document for further details.</li>
1000    </ul>
1002    <p>Here are the steps to build ICU:</p>
1004    <ol>
1005      <li>Decompress the icu-<i>X</i>.<i>Y</i>.tgz (or
1006      icu-<i>X</i>.<i>Y</i>.tar.gz) file. For example, <tt>"gunzip -d &lt;
1007      icu-<i>X</i>.<i>Y</i>.tgz | tar xvf -"</tt></li>
1009      <li>Change directory to the "icu/source".</li>
1011      <li>Run <span style='font-family: monospace;'>"chmod +x runConfigureICU configure install-sh"</span> because
1012      these files may have the wrong permissions.</li>
1014      <li>Run the <span style='font-family: monospace;'><a href="source/runConfigureICU">runConfigureICU</a></span>
1015      script for your platform. (See <a href="#HowToConfigureICU">configuration
1016      note</a> below).</li>
1018      <li>Type <span style='font-family: monospace;'>"gmake"</span> (or "make" if GNU make is the default make on
1019      your platform) to compile the libraries and all the data files. The proper
1020      name of the GNU make command is printed at the end of the configuration
1021      run, as in "You must use gmake to compile ICU".
1022      <br/>
1023      Note that the compilation command output may be simplified on your platform.  If this is the case, you will see just:
1024      <blockquote><p style='background-color: #ddd; font-family: monospace; font-size: small'>gcc ... stubdata.c</p></blockquote>
1025      rather than
1026      <blockquote><p style='background-color: #ddd; font-family: monospace; font-size: small'>gcc  -DU_NO_DEFAULT_INCLUDE_UTF_HEADERS=1 -D_REENTRANT -I../common -DU_ATTRIBUTE_DEPRECATED= -O2 -Wall -std=c99 -pedantic -Wshadow -Wpointer-arith -Wmissing-prototypes -Wwrite-strings -c -DPIC -fPIC -o stubdata.o stubdata.c</p></blockquote>
1027      .<br/>
1028      If you need to see the whole compilation line,  use <span style='font-family: monospace;'>"gmake VERBOSE=1"</span>. The full compilation line will print if an error occurs.
1029      </li>
1031      <li>Optionally, type <span style='font-family: monospace;'>"gmake check"</span> to run the test suite, which
1032      checks for ICU's functionality integrity (See <a href=
1033      "#HowToTestWithoutGmake">testing note</a> below).</li>
1035      <li>Type <span style='font-family: monospace;'>"gmake install"</span> to install ICU. If you used the --prefix=
1036      option on configure or runConfigureICU, ICU will be installed to the
1037      directory you specified. (See <a href="#HowToInstallICU">installation
1038      note</a> below).</li>
1039    </ol>
1041    <p><a name="HowToConfigureICU" id="HowToConfigureICU"><strong>Configuring ICU
1042    NOTE:</strong></a> Type <tt>"/runConfigureICU --help"</tt> for help on how
1043    to run it and a list of supported platforms. You may also want to type
1044    <tt>"/configure --help"</tt> to print the available configure options that
1045    you may want to give runConfigureICU. If you are not using the
1046    runConfigureICU script, or your platform is not supported by the script, you
1047    may need to set your CC, CXX, CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS environment variables, and
1048    type <tt>"/configure"</tt>.
1049    HP-UX users, please see this <a href="#ImportantNotesHPUX">note regarding
1050    HP-UX multithreaded build issues</a> with newer compilers. Solaris users,
1051    please see this <a href="#ImportantNotesSolaris">note regarding Solaris
1052    multithreaded build issues</a>.</p>
1054    <p>ICU is built with strict compiler warnings enabled by default.  If this
1055    causes excessive numbers of warnings on your platform, use the --disable-strict
1056    option to configure to reduce the warning level.</p>
1058    <p><a name="HowToTestWithoutGmake" id="HowToTestWithoutGmake"><strong>Running
1059    The Tests From The Command Line NOTE:</strong></a> You may have to set
1060    certain variables if you with to run test programs individually, that is
1061    apart from "gmake check". The environment variable <strong>ICU_DATA</strong>
1062    can be set to the full pathname of the data directory to indicate where the
1063    locale data files and conversion mapping tables are when you are not using
1064    the shared library (e.g. by using the .dat archive or the individual data
1065    files). The trailing "/" is required after the directory name (e.g.
1066    "$Root/source/data/out/" will work, but the value "$Root/source/data/out" is
1067    not acceptable). You do not need to set <strong>ICU_DATA</strong> if the
1068    complete shared data library is in your library path.</p>
1070    <p><a name="HowToInstallICU" id="HowToInstallICU"><strong>Installing ICU
1071    NOTE:</strong></a> Some platforms use package management tools to control the
1072    installation and uninstallation of files on the system, as well as the
1073    integrity of the system configuration. You may want to check if ICU can be
1074    packaged for your package management tools by looking into the "packaging"
1075    directory. (Please note that if you are using a snapshot of ICU from Subversion, it
1076    is probable that the packaging scripts or related files are not up to date
1077    with the contents of ICU at this time, so use them with caution).</p>
1079    <h3><a name="HowToBuildZOS" href="#HowToBuildZOS" id="HowToBuildZOS">How To
1080    Build And Install On z/OS (OS/390)</a></h3>
1082    <p>You can install ICU on z/OS or OS/390 (the previous name of z/OS), but IBM
1083    tests only the z/OS installation. You install ICU in a z/OS UNIX system
1084    services file system such as HFS or zFS. On this platform, it is important
1085    that you understand a few details:</p>
1087    <ul>
1088      <li>The makedep and GNU make tools are required for building ICU. If it
1089      is not already installed on your system, it is available at the <a href=
1090      "http://www-03.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1toy.html">z/OS UNIX -
1091      Tools and Toys</a> site. The PATH environment variable should be updated to
1092      contain the location of this executable prior to build. Failure to add these
1093      tools to your PATH will cause ICU build failures or cause pkgdata to fail
1094      to run.</li>
1096      <li>Since USS does not support using the mmap() function over NFS, it is
1097      recommended that you build ICU on a local filesystem. Once ICU has been
1098      built, you should not have this problem while using ICU when the data
1099      library has been built as a shared library, which is this is the default
1100      setting.</li>
1102      <li>Encoding considerations: The source code assumes that it is compiled
1103      with codepage ibm-1047 (to be exact, the UNIX System Services variant of
1104      it). The pax command converts all of the source code files from ASCII to
1105      codepage ibm-1047 (USS) EBCDIC. However, some files are binary files and
1106      must not be converted, or must be converted back to their original state.
1107      You can use the <a href="as_is/os390/unpax-icu.sh">unpax-icu.sh</a> script
1108      to do this for you automatically. It will unpackage the tar file and
1109      convert all the necessary files for you automatically.</li>
1111      <li>z/OS supports both native S/390 hexadecimal floating point and (with
1112      OS/390 2.6 and later) IEEE 754 binary floating point. This is a compile
1113      time option. Applications built with IEEE should use ICU DLLs that are
1114      built with IEEE (and vice versa). The environment variable IEEE390=0 will
1115      cause the z/OS version of ICU to be built without IEEE floating point
1116      support and use the native hexadecimal floating point. By default ICU is
1117      built with IEEE 754 support. Native floating point support is sufficient
1118      for codepage conversion, resource bundle and UnicodeString operations, but
1119      the Format APIs require IEEE binary floating point.</li>
1121      <li>z/OS introduced the concept of Extra Performance Linkage (XPLINK) to
1122      bring performance improvement opportunities to call-intensive C and C++
1123      applications such as ICU. XPLINK is enabled on a DLL-by-DLL basis, so if
1124      you are considering using XPLINK in your application that uses ICU, you
1125      should consider building the XPLINK-enabled version of ICU. You need to
1126      set ICU's environment variable <code>OS390_XPLINK=1</code> prior to
1127      invoking the make process to produce binaries that are enabled for
1128      XPLINK. The XPLINK option, which is available for z/OS 1.2 and later,
1129      requires the PTF PQ69418 to build XPLINK enabled binaries.</li>
1131      <li>ICU requires XPLINK for the icuio library. If you want to use the
1132      rest of ICU without XPLINK, then you must use the --disable-icuio
1133      configure option.</li>
1135      <li>The latest versions of z/OS use <a
1136      href="http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg2120240">XPLINK
1137      version (C128) of the C++ standard library</a> by default. You may see <a
1138      href="http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21376279">an
1139      error</a> when running with XPLINK disabled. To avoid this error,
1140      set the following environment variable or similar:
1142<pre><samp>export _CXX_PSYSIX="CEE.SCEELIB(C128N)":"CBC.SCLBSID(IOSTREAM,COMPLEX)"</samp></pre>
1143      </li>
1146      <li>The rest of the instructions for building and testing ICU on z/OS with
1147      UNIX System Services are the same as the <a href="#HowToBuildUNIX">How To
1148      Build And Install On UNIX</a> section.</li>
1149    </ul>
1151    <h4>z/OS (Batch/PDS) support outside the UNIX system services
1152    environment</h4>
1154    <p>By default, ICU builds its libraries into the UNIX file system (HFS). In
1155    addition, there is a z/OS specific environment variable (OS390BATCH) to build
1156    some libraries into the z/OS native file system. This is useful, for example,
1157    when your application is externalized via Job Control Language (JCL).</p>
1159    <p>The OS390BATCH environment variable enables non-UNIX support including the
1160    batch environment. When OS390BATCH is set, the libicui18n<i>XX</i>.dll,
1161    libicuuc<i>XX</i>.dll, and libicudt<i>XX</i>e.dll binaries are built into
1162    data sets (the native file system). Turning on OS390BATCH does not turn off
1163    the normal z/OS UNIX build. This means that the z/OS UNIX (HFS) DLLs will
1164    always be created.</p>
1166    <p>Two additional environment variables indicate the names of the z/OS data
1167    sets to use. The LOADMOD environment variable identifies the name of the data
1168    set that contains the dynamic link libraries (DLLs) and the LOADEXP
1169    environment variable identifies the name of the data set that contains the
1170    side decks, which are normally the files with the .x suffix in the UNIX file
1171    system.</p>
1173    <p>A data set is roughly equivalent to a UNIX or Windows file. For most kinds
1174    of data sets the operating system maintains record boundaries. UNIX and
1175    Windows files are byte streams. Two kinds of data sets are PDS and PDSE. Each
1176    data set of these two types contains a directory. It is like a UNIX
1177    directory. Each "file" is called a "member". Each member name is limited to
1178    eight bytes, normally EBCDIC.</p>
1180    <p>Here is an example of some environment variables that you can set prior to
1181    building ICU:</p>
1188    <p>The PDS member names for the DLL file names are as follows:</p>
1190<samp>IXMI<i>XX</i>IN --&gt; libicui18n<i>XX</i>.dll
1191IXMI<i>XX</i>UC --&gt; libicuuc<i>XX</i>.dll
1192IXMI<i>XX</i>DA --&gt; libicudt<i>XX</i>e.dll</samp>
1195    <p>You should point the LOADMOD environment variable at a partitioned data
1196    set extended (PDSE) and point the LOADEXP environment variable at a
1197    partitioned data set (PDS). The PDSE can be allocated with the following
1198    attributes:</p>
1200<samp>Data Set Name . . . : <i>USER</i>.ICU.LOAD
1201Management class. . : <i>**None**</i>
1202Storage class . . . : <i>BASE</i>
1203Volume serial . . . : <i>TSO007</i>
1204Device type . . . . : <i>3390</i>
1205Data class. . . . . : <i>LOAD</i>
1206Organization  . . . : PO
1207Record format . . . : U
1208Record length . . . : 0
1209Block size  . . . . : <i>32760</i>
12101st extent cylinders: 1
1211Secondary cylinders : 5
1212Data set name type  : LIBRARY</samp>
1215    <p>The PDS can be allocated with the following attributes:</p>
1217<samp>Data Set Name . . . : <i>USER</i>.ICU.EXP
1218Management class. . : <i>**None**</i>
1219Storage class . . . : <i>BASE</i>
1220Volume serial . . . : <i>TSO007</i>
1221Device type . . . . : <i>3390</i>
1222Data class. . . . . : <i>**None**</i>
1223Organization  . . . : PO
1224Record format . . . : FB
1225Record length . . . : 80
1226Block size  . . . . : <i>3200</i>
12271st extent cylinders: 3
1228Secondary cylinders : 3
1229Data set name type  : PDS</samp>
1232    <h3><a name="HowToBuildOS400" href="#HowToBuildOS400" id=
1233    "HowToBuildOS400">How To Build And Install On The IBM i Family (IBM i, i5/OS OS/400)</a></h3>
1235    <p>Before you start building ICU, ICU requires the following:</p>
1237    <ul>
1238      <li>QSHELL interpreter installed (install base option 30, operating system)
1239      <!--li>QShell Utilities, PRPQ 5799-XEH (not required for V4R5)</li--></li>
1241      <li>ILE C/C++ Compiler installed on the system</li>
1243      <li>The latest IBM tools for Developers for IBM i &mdash;
1244        <a href='http://www.ibm.com/servers/enable/site/porting/tools/'>http://www.ibm.com/servers/enable/site/porting/tools/</a>
1245        <!-- formerly: http://www.ibm.com/servers/enable/site/porting/iseries/overview/gnu_utilities.html -->
1246      </li>
1247    </ul>
1249    <p>The following describes how to setup and build ICU. For background
1250    information, you should look at the <a href="#HowToBuildUNIX">UNIX build
1251    instructions</a>.</p>
1253    <ol>
1254      <li>
1255        Copy the ICU source .tgz to the IBM i environment, as binary.
1256        Also, copy the <a href='as_is/os400/unpax-icu.sh'>unpax-icu.sh</a> script into the same directory, as a text file.
1257      </li>
1259      <li>
1260        Create target library. This library will be the target for the
1261        resulting modules, programs and service programs. You will specify this
1262        library on the OUTPUTDIR environment variable.
1264<samp>CRTLIB LIB(<i>libraryname</i>)
1265ADDENVVAR ENVVAR(OUTPUTDIR) VALUE('<i>libraryname</i>') REPLACE(*YES)   </samp></pre>
1266      </li>
1268      <li>
1269      Set up the following environment variables and job characteristics in your build process
1272CHGJOB CCSID(37)</samp></pre></li>
1274      <li>Fire up the QSH (all subsequent commands are run inside the qsh session.)</i>
1275        <pre><samp>qsh</samp></pre>
1276      </li>
1278      <li>Set up the PATH: <pre><samp>export PATH=/QIBM/ProdData/DeveloperTools/qsh/bin:$PATH:/QOpenSys/usr/bin</samp></pre>
1279      </li>
1281      <li>Unpack the ICU source code archive:
1282        <pre><samp>gzip -d icu-<i>X</i>.<i>Y</i>.tgz</samp></pre>
1283          </li>
1285      <li>Run unpax-icu.sh on the tar file generated from the previous step.
1286        <pre><samp>unpax-icu.sh icu.tar</samp></pre></li>
1288      <li>Build the program ICULD which ICU will use for linkage.
1289        <pre><samp>cd icu/as_is/os400
1290qsh bldiculd.sh
1291cd ../../..</pre></samp>
1292        </li>
1294      <li>Change into the 'source' directory, and configure ICU.  (See <a href="#HowToConfigureICU">configuration
1295      note</a> for details). Note that --with-data-packaging=archive and setting the --prefix are recommended, building in default (dll) mode is currently not supported.
1296        <pre><samp>cd icu/source
1297/runConfigureICU IBMi --prefix=<i>/path/to/somewhere</i> --with-data-packaging=archive</samp></pre>
1300      <li>Build ICU. <i>(Note: Do not use the -j option)</i> <pre><samp>gmake</samp></pre></li>
1302      <li>Test ICU. <pre><samp>gmake check</samp></pre>
1303        <smaller>(The <tt> QIBM_MULTI_THREADED=Y</tt> flag will be automatically applied to intltest -
1304          you can look at the <a href=
1305      "http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/iseries/v5r3/index.jsp?topic=/apis/concept4.htm">
1306      iSeries Information Center</a> for more details regarding the running of multiple threads
1307      on IBM i.)</smaller></li>
1308    </ol>
1310      <!-- cross -->
1311    <h3><a name="HowToCrossCompileICU" href="#HowToCrossCompileICU" id="HowToCrossCompileICU">How To Cross Compile ICU</a></h3>
1312		<p>This section will explain how to build ICU on one platform, but to produce binaries intended to run on another. This is commonly known as a cross compile.</p>
1313		<p>Normally, in the course of a build, ICU needs to run the tools that it builds in order to generate and package data and test-data.In a cross compilation setting, ICU is built on a different system from that which it eventually runs on. An example might be, if you are building for a small/headless system (such as an embedded device), or a system where you can't easily run the ICU command line tools (any non-UNIX-like system).</p>
1314		<p>To reduce confusion, we will here refer to the "A" and the "B" system.System "A" is the actual system we will be running on- the only requirements on it is are it is able to build ICU from the command line targetting itself (with configure or runConfigureICU), and secondly, that it also contain the correct toolchain for compiling and linking for the resultant platform, referred to as the "B" system.</p>
1315		<p>The autoconf docs use the term "build" for A, and "host" for B. More details at: <a href="http://www.gnu.org/software/autoconf/manual/html_node/Specifying-Names.html#Specifying-Names">http://www.gnu.org/software/autoconf/manual/html_node/Specifying-Names.html</a></p>
1316		<p>Three initially-empty directories will be used in this example:</p>
1317		<table summary="Three directories used in this example" class="docTable">
1318			<tr>
1319				<th align="left">/icu</th><td>a copy of the ICU source</td>
1320			</tr>
1321			<tr>
1322				<th align="left">/buildA</th><td>an empty directory, it will contain ICU built for A<br />(MacOSX in this case)</td>
1323			</tr>
1324			<tr>
1325				<th align="left">/buildB</th><td>an empty directory, it will contain ICU built for B<br />(HaikuOS in this case)</td>
1326			</tr>
1327		</table>
1329		<ol>
1330		<li>Check out or unpack the ICU source code into the /icu directory.You will have the directories /icu/source, etc.</li>
1331		<li>Build ICU in /buildA normally (using runConfigureICU or configure):
1332<pre class="samp">cd /buildA
1333sh /icu/source/runConfigureICU <strong>MacOSX</strong>
1336		</li>
1337		<li>Set PATH or other variables as needed, such as CPPFLAGS.</li>
1338		<li>Build ICU in /buildB<br />
1339			<div class="note"><b>Note:</b> "<code>--with-cross-build</code>" takes an absolute path.</div>
1340<pre class="samp">cd /buildB
1341sh /icu/source/configure --host=<strong>i586-pc-haiku</strong> --with-cross-build=<strong>/buildA</strong>
1343		</li>
1344		<li>Tests and testdata can be built with "gnumake tests".</li>
1345	</ol>
1346      <!-- end cross -->
1348    <!-- end build environment -->
1350    <h2><a name="HowToPackage" href="#HowToPackage" id="HowToPackage">How To
1351    Package ICU</a></h2>
1353    <p>There are many ways that a person can package ICU with their software
1354    products. Usually only the libraries need to be considered for packaging.</p>
1356    <p>On UNIX, you should use "<tt>gmake install</tt>" to make it easier to
1357    develop and package ICU. The bin, lib and include directories are needed to
1358    develop applications that use ICU. These directories will be created relative
1359    to the "<tt>--prefix=</tt><i>dir</i>" configure option (See the <a href=
1360    "#HowToBuildUNIX">UNIX build instructions</a>). When ICU is built on Windows,
1361    a similar directory structure is built.</p>
1363    <p>When changes have been made to the standard ICU distribution, it is
1364    recommended that at least one of the following guidelines be followed for
1365    special packaging.</p>
1367    <ol>
1368      <li>Add a suffix name to the library names. This can be done with the
1369      --with-library-suffix configure option.</li>
1371      <li>The installation script should install the ICU libraries into the
1372      application's directory.</li>
1373    </ol>
1375    <p>Following these guidelines prevents other applications that use a standard
1376    ICU distribution from conflicting with any libraries that you need. On
1377    operating systems that do not have a standard C++ ABI (name mangling) for
1378    compilers, it is recommended to do this special packaging anyway. More
1379    details on customizing ICU are available in the <a href=
1380    "http://userguide.icu-project.org/">User's Guide</a>. The <a href=
1381    "#SourceCode">ICU Source Code Organization</a> section of this readme.html
1382    gives a more complete description of the libraries.</p>
1384    <table class="docTable" summary=
1385    "ICU has several libraries for you to use.">
1386      <caption>
1387        Here is an example of libraries that are frequently packaged.
1388      </caption>
1390      <tr>
1391        <th scope="col">Library Name</th>
1393        <th scope="col">Windows Filename</th>
1395        <th scope="col">Linux Filename</th>
1397        <th scope="col">Comment</th>
1398      </tr>
1400      <tr>
1401        <td>Data Library</td>
1403        <td>icudt<i>XY</i>l.dll</td>
1405        <td>libicudata.so.<i>XY</i>.<i>Z</i></td>
1407        <td>Data required by the Common and I18n libraries. There are many ways
1408        to package and <a href=
1409        "http://userguide.icu-project.org/icudata">customize this
1410        data</a>, but by default this is all you need.</td>
1411      </tr>
1413      <tr>
1414        <td>Common Library</td>
1416        <td>icuuc<i>XY</i>.dll</td>
1418        <td>libicuuc.so.<i>XY</i>.<i>Z</i></td>
1420        <td>Base library required by all other ICU libraries.</td>
1421      </tr>
1423      <tr>
1424        <td>Internationalization (i18n) Library</td>
1426        <td>icuin<i>XY</i>.dll</td>
1428        <td>libicui18n.so.<i>XY</i>.<i>Z</i></td>
1430        <td>A library that contains many locale based internationalization (i18n)
1431        functions.</td>
1432      </tr>
1434      <tr>
1435        <td>Layout Engine</td>
1437        <td>icule<i>XY</i>.dll</td>
1439        <td>libicule.so.<i>XY</i>.<i>Z</i></td>
1441        <td>An optional engine for doing font layout.</td>
1442      </tr>
1444      <tr>
1445        <td>Layout Extensions Engine</td>
1447        <td>iculx<i>XY</i>.dll</td>
1449        <td>libiculx.so.<i>XY</i>.<i>Z</i></td>
1451        <td>An optional engine for doing font layout that uses parts of ICU.</td>
1452      </tr>
1454      <tr>
1455        <td>ICU I/O (Unicode stdio) Library</td>
1457        <td>icuio<i>XY</i>.dll</td>
1459        <td>libicuio.so.<i>XY</i>.<i>Z</i></td>
1461        <td>An optional library that provides a stdio like API with Unicode
1462        support.</td>
1463      </tr>
1465      <tr>
1466        <td>Tool Utility Library</td>
1468        <td>icutu<i>XY</i>.dll</td>
1470        <td>libicutu.so.<i>XY</i>.<i>Z</i></td>
1472        <td>An internal library that contains internal APIs that are only used by
1473        ICU's tools. If you do not use ICU's tools, you do not need this
1474        library.</td>
1475      </tr>
1476    </table>
1478    <p>Normally only the above ICU libraries need to be considered for packaging.
1479    The versionless symbolic links to these libraries are only needed for easier
1480    development. The <i>X</i>, <i>Y</i> and <i>Z</i> parts of the name are the
1481    version numbers of ICU. For example, ICU 2.0.2 would have the name
1482    libicuuc.so.20.2 for the common library. The exact format of the library
1483    names can vary between platforms due to how each platform can handles library
1484    versioning.</p>
1486    <h2><a name="ImportantNotes" href="#ImportantNotes" id=
1487    "ImportantNotes">Important Notes About Using ICU</a></h2>
1489    <h3><a name="ImportantNotesMultithreaded" href="#ImportantNotesMultithreaded"
1490    id="ImportantNotesMultithreaded">Using ICU in a Multithreaded
1491    Environment</a></h3>
1493    <p>Some versions of ICU require calling the <code>u_init()</code> function
1494    from <code>uclean.h</code> to ensure that ICU is initialized properly. In
1495    those ICU versions, <code>u_init()</code> must be called before ICU is used
1496    from multiple threads. There is no harm in calling <code>u_init()</code> in a
1497    single-threaded application, on a single-CPU machine, or in other cases where
1498    <code>u_init()</code> is not required.</p>
1500    <p>In addition to ensuring thread safety, <code>u_init()</code> also attempts
1501    to load at least one ICU data file. Assuming that all data files are packaged
1502    together (or are in the same folder in files mode), a failure code from
1503    <code>u_init()</code> usually means that the data cannot be found. In this
1504    case, the data may not be installed properly, or the application may have
1505    failed to call <code>udata_setCommonData()</code> or
1506    <code>u_setDataDirectory()</code> which specify to ICU where it can find its
1507    data.</p>
1509    <p>Since <code>u_init()</code> will load only one or two data files, it
1510    cannot guarantee that all of the data that an application needs is available.
1511    It cannot check for all data files because the set of files is customizable,
1512    and some ICU services work without loading any data at all. An application
1513    should always check for error codes when opening ICU service objects (using
1514    <code>ucnv_open()</code>, <code>ucol_open()</code>, C++ constructors,
1515    etc.).</p>
1517    <h4>ICU 3.4 and later</h4>
1519    <p>ICU 3.4 self-initializes properly for multi-threaded use. It achieves this
1520    without performance penalty by hardcoding the core Unicode properties data,
1521    at the cost of some flexibility. (For details see Jitterbug 4497.)</p>
1523    <p><code>u_init()</code> can be used to check for data loading. It tries to
1524    load the converter alias table (<code>cnvalias.icu</code>).</p>
1526    <h4>ICU 2.6..3.2</h4>
1528    <p>These ICU versions require a call to <code>u_init()</code> before
1529    multi-threaded use. The services that are directly affected are those that
1530    don't have a service object and need to be fast: normalization and character
1531    properties.</p>
1533    <p><code>u_init()</code> loads and initializes the data files for
1534    normalization and character properties (<code>unorm.icu</code> and
1535    <code>uprops.icu</code>) and can therefore also be used to check for data
1536    loading.</p>
1538    <h4>ICU 2.4 and earlier</h4>
1540    <p>ICU 2.4 and earlier versions were not prepared for multithreaded use on
1541    multi-CPU platforms where the CPUs implement weak memory coherency. These
1542    CPUs include: Power4, Power5, Alpha, Itanium. <code>u_init()</code> was not
1543    defined yet.</p>
1545    <h4><a name="ImportantNotesHPUX" href="#ImportantNotesHPUX" id=
1546    "ImportantNotesHPUX">Using ICU in a Multithreaded Environment on
1547    HP-UX</a></h4>
1549    <p>When ICU is built with aCC on HP-UX, the <a
1550    href="http://h21007.www2.hp.com/portal/site/dspp/menuitem.863c3e4cbcdc3f3515b49c108973a801?ciid=eb08b3f1eee02110b3f1eee02110275d6e10RCRD">-AA</a>
1551    compiler flag is used. It is required in order to use the latest
1552    &lt;iostream&gt; API in a thread safe manner. This compiler flag affects the
1553    version of the C++ library being used. Your applications will also need to
1554    be compiled with -AA in order to use ICU.</p>
1556    <h4><a name="ImportantNotesSolaris" href="#ImportantNotesSolaris" id=
1557    "ImportantNotesSolaris">Using ICU in a Multithreaded Environment on
1558    Solaris</a></h4>
1560    <h5>Linking on Solaris</h5>
1562    <p>In order to avoid synchronization and threading issues, developers are
1563    <strong>suggested</strong> to strictly follow the compiling and linking
1564    guidelines for multithreaded applications, specified in the following
1565    document from Sun Microsystems. Most notably, pay strict attention to the
1566    following statements from Sun:</p>
1568    <blockquote>
1569      <p>To use libthread, specify -lthread before -lc on the ld command line, or
1570      last on the cc command line.</p>
1572      <p>To use libpthread, specify -lpthread before -lc on the ld command line,
1573      or last on the cc command line.</p>
1574    </blockquote>
1576    <p>Failure to do this may cause spurious lock conflicts, recursive mutex
1577    failure, and deadlock.</p>
1579    <p>Source: "<i>Solaris Multithreaded Programming Guide, Compiling and
1580    Debugging</i>", Sun Microsystems, Inc., Apr 2004<br />
1581     <a href=
1582    "http://docs.sun.com/app/docs/doc/816-5137/6mba5vpke?a=view">http://docs.sun.com/app/docs/doc/816-5137/6mba5vpke?a=view</a></p>
1584    <h3><a name="ImportantNotesWindows" href="#ImportantNotesWindows" id=
1585    "ImportantNotesWindows">Windows Platform</a></h3>
1587    <p>If you are building on the Win32 platform, it is important that you
1588    understand a few of the following build details.</p>
1590    <h4>DLL directories and the PATH setting</h4>
1592    <p>As delivered, the International Components for Unicode build as several
1593    DLLs, which are placed in the "<i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\bin" directory. You must
1594    add this directory to the PATH environment variable in your system, or any
1595    executables you build will not be able to access International Components for
1596    Unicode libraries. Alternatively, you can copy the DLL files into a directory
1597    already in your PATH, but we do not recommend this. You can wind up with
1598    multiple copies of the DLL and wind up using the wrong one.</p>
1600    <h4><a name="ImportantNotesWindowsPath" id=
1601    "ImportantNotesWindowsPath">Changing your PATH</a></h4>
1603    <p><strong>Windows 2000/XP</strong>: Use the System Icon in the Control
1604    Panel. Pick the "Advanced" tab. Select the "Environment Variables..."
1605    button. Select the variable PATH in the lower box, and select the lower
1606    "Edit..." button. In the "Variable Value" box, append the string
1607    ";<i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\bin" to the end of the path string. If there is
1608    nothing there, just type in "<i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\bin". Click the Set button,
1609    then the OK button.</p>
1611    <p>Note: When packaging a Windows application for distribution and
1612    installation on user systems, copies of the ICU DLLs should be included with
1613    the application, and installed for exclusive use by the application. This is
1614    the only way to insure that your application is running with the same version
1615    of ICU, built with exactly the same options, that you developed and tested
1616    with. Refer to Microsoft's guidelines on the usage of DLLs, or search for the
1617    phrase "DLL hell" on <a href=
1618    "http://msdn.microsoft.com/">msdn.microsoft.com</a>.</p>
1620    <h3><a name="ImportantNotesUNIX" href="#ImportantNotesUNIX" id=
1621    "ImportantNotesUNIX">UNIX Type Platform</a></h3>
1623    <p>If you are building on a UNIX platform, and if you are installing ICU in a
1624    non-standard location, you may need to add the location of your ICU libraries
1625    to your <strong>LD_LIBRARY_PATH</strong> or <strong>LIBPATH</strong>
1626    environment variable (or the equivalent runtime library path environment
1627    variable for your system). The ICU libraries may not link or load properly
1628    without doing this.</p>
1630    <p>Note that if you do not want to have to set this variable, you may instead
1631    use the --enable-rpath option at configuration time. This option will
1632    instruct the linker to always look for the libraries where they are
1633    installed. You will need to use the appropriate linker options when linking
1634    your own applications and libraries against ICU, too. Please refer to your
1635    system's linker manual for information about runtime paths. The use of rpath
1636    also means that when building a new version of ICU you should not have an
1637    older version installed in the same place as the new version's installation
1638    directory, as the older libraries will used during the build, instead of the
1639    new ones, likely leading to an incorrectly build ICU. This is the proper
1640    behavior of rpath.</p>
1642    <h2><a name="PlatformDependencies" href="#PlatformDependencies" id=
1643    "PlatformDependencies">Platform Dependencies</a></h2>
1645    <h3><a name="PlatformDependenciesNew" href="#PlatformDependenciesNew" id=
1646    "PlatformDependenciesNew">Porting To A New Platform</a></h3>
1648    <p>If you are using ICU's Makefiles to build ICU on a new platform, there are
1649    a few places where you will need to add or modify some files. If you need
1650    more help, you can always ask the <a href=
1651    "http://site.icu-project.org/contacts">icu-support mailing list</a>. Once
1652    you have finished porting ICU to a new platform, it is recommended that you
1653    contribute your changes back to ICU via the icu-support mailing list. This
1654    will make it easier for everyone to benefit from your work.</p>
1656    <h4>Data For a New Platform</h4>
1658    <p>For some people, it may not be necessary for completely build ICU. Most of
1659    the makefiles and build targets are for tools that are used for building
1660    ICU's data, and an application's data (when an application uses ICU resource
1661    bundles for its data).</p>
1663    <p>Data files can be built on a different platform when both platforms share
1664    the same endianness and the same charset family. This assertion does not
1665    include platform dependent DLLs/shared/static libraries. For details see the
1666    User Guide <a href="http://userguide.icu-project.org/icudata">ICU
1667    Data</a> chapter.</p>
1669    <p>ICU 3.6 removes the requirement that ICU be completely built in the native
1670    operating environment. It adds the icupkg tool which can be run on any
1671    platform to turn binary ICU data files from any one of the three formats into
1672    any one of the other data formats. This allows a application to use ICU data
1673    built anywhere to be used for any other target platform.</p>
1675    <p><strong>WARNING!</strong> Building ICU without running the tests is not
1676    recommended. The tests verify that ICU is safe to use. It is recommended that
1677    you try to completely port and test ICU before using the libraries for your
1678    own application.</p>
1680    <h4>Adapting Makefiles For a New Platform</h4>
1682    <p>Try to follow the build steps from the <a href="#HowToBuildUNIX">UNIX</a>
1683    build instructions. If the configure script fails, then you will need to
1684    modify some files. Here are the usual steps for porting to a new
1685    platform:<br />
1686    </p>
1688    <ol>
1689      <li>Create an mh file in icu/source/config/. You can use mh-linux or a
1690      similar mh file as your base configuration.</li>
1692      <li>Modify icu/source/aclocal.m4 to recognize your platform's mh file.</li>
1694      <li>Modify icu/source/configure.in to properly set your <b>platform</b> C
1695      Macro define.</li>
1697      <li>Run <a href="http://www.gnu.org/software/autoconf/">autoconf</a> in
1698      icu/source/ without any options. The autoconf tool is standard on most
1699      Linux systems.</li>
1701      <li>If you have any optimization options that you want to normally use, you
1702      can modify icu/source/runConfigureICU to specify those options for your
1703      platform.</li>
1705      <li>Build and test ICU on your platform. It is very important that you run
1706      the tests. If you don't run the tests, there is no guarentee that you have
1707      properly ported ICU.</li>
1708    </ol>
1710    <h3><a name="PlatformDependenciesImpl" href="#PlatformDependenciesImpl" id=
1711    "PlatformDependenciesImpl">Platform Dependent Implementations</a></h3>
1713    <p>The platform dependencies have been mostly isolated into the following
1714    files in the common library. This information can be useful if you are
1715    porting ICU to a new platform.</p>
1717    <ul>
1718      <li>
1719        <strong>unicode/platform.h.in</strong> (autoconf'ed platforms)<br />
1720         <strong>unicode/p<i>XXXX</i>.h</strong> (others: pwin32.h, ppalmos.h,
1721        ..): Platform-dependent typedefs and defines:<br />
1722        <br />
1725        <ul>
1726          <li>Generic types like UBool, int8_t, int16_t, int32_t, int64_t,
1727          uint64_t etc.</li>
1729          <li>U_EXPORT and U_IMPORT for specifying dynamic library import and
1730          export</li>
1732          <li>String handling support for the char16_t and wchar_t types.</li>
1733        </ul>
1734        <br />
1735      </li>
1737      <li>
1738        <strong>unicode/putil.h, putil.c</strong>: platform-dependent
1739        implementations of various functions that are platform dependent:<br />
1740        <br />
1743        <ul>
1744          <li>uprv_isNaN, uprv_isInfinite, uprv_getNaN and uprv_getInfinity for
1745          handling special floating point values.</li>
1747          <li>uprv_tzset, uprv_timezone, uprv_tzname and time for getting
1748          platform specific time and time zone information.</li>
1750          <li>u_getDataDirectory for getting the default data directory.</li>
1752          <li>uprv_getDefaultLocaleID for getting the default locale
1753          setting.</li>
1755          <li>uprv_getDefaultCodepage for getting the default codepage
1756          encoding.</li>
1757        </ul>
1758        <br />
1759      </li>
1761      <li>
1762        <strong>umutex.h, umutex.c</strong>: Code for doing synchronization in
1763        multithreaded applications. If you wish to use International Components
1764        for Unicode in a multithreaded application, you must provide a
1765        synchronization primitive that the classes can use to protect their
1766        global data against simultaneous modifications. We already supply working
1767        implementations for many platforms that ICU builds on.<br />
1768        <br />
1769      </li>
1771      <li><strong>umapfile.h, umapfile.c</strong>: functions for mapping or
1772      otherwise reading or loading files into memory. All access by ICU to data
1773      from files makes use of these functions.<br />
1774      <br />
1775      </li>
1777      <li>Using platform specific #ifdef macros are highly discouraged outside of
1778      the scope of these files. When the source code gets updated in the future,
1779      these #ifdef's can cause testing problems for your platform.</li>
1780    </ul>
1781    <hr />
1783    <p>Copyright &copy; 1997-2013 International Business Machines Corporation and
1784    others. All Rights Reserved.<br />
1785     IBM Globalization Center of Competency - San Jos&eacute;<br />
1786     4400 North First Street<br />
1787     San Jos&eacute;, CA 95134<br />
1788     USA</p>
1789  </body>