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1<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
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5  <head>
6    <title>ReadMe for ICU 49.1.1</title>
7    <meta name="COPYRIGHT" content=
8    "Copyright (c) 1997-2012 IBM Corporation and others. All Rights Reserved." />
9    <meta name="KEYWORDS" content=
10    "ICU; International Components for Unicode; ICU4C; what's new; readme; read me; introduction; downloads; downloading; building; installation;" />
11    <meta name="DESCRIPTION" content=
12    "The introduction to the International Components for Unicode with instructions on building, installation, usage and other information about ICU." />
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14	<link type="text/css" href="/icu4c.css" rel="stylesheet"/>
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17  <body class="draft">
18    <h1>International Components for Unicode<br />
19     <abbr title="International Components for Unicode">ICU</abbr> 49.1.1 ReadMe</h1>
21  	<!--
22  	<p><b>Note:</b> This is a development milestone release of ICU4C 49.
23    This milestone is intended for those wishing to get an early look at ICU 49 new features and API changes.
24    It is not recommended for production use.
25    </p>
26    -->
27    <p>Last updated: 2012-Apr-04<br />
28     Copyright &copy; 1997-2012 International Business Machines Corporation and
29    others. All Rights Reserved.</p>
30    <!-- Remember that there is a copyright at the end too -->
31    <hr />
33    <h2 class="TOC">Table of Contents</h2>
35    <ul class="TOC">
36      <li><a href="#Introduction">Introduction</a></li>
38      <li><a href="#GettingStarted">Getting Started</a></li>
40      <li><a href="#News">What Is New In This release?</a></li>
42      <li><a href="#Download">How To Download the Source Code</a></li>
44      <li><a href="#SourceCode">ICU Source Code Organization</a></li>
46      <li>
47        <a href="#HowToBuild">How To Build And Install ICU</a> 
49        <ul >
50          <li><a href="#RecBuild">Recommended Build Options</a></li>
52          <li><a href="#UserConfig">User-Configurable Settings</a></li>
54          <li><a href="#HowToBuildWindows">Windows</a></li>
56          <li><a href="#HowToBuildCygwin">Cygwin</a></li>
58          <li><a href="#HowToBuildUNIX">UNIX</a></li>
60          <li><a href="#HowToBuildZOS">z/OS (os/390)</a></li>
62          <li><a href="#HowToBuildOS400">IBM i family (IBM i, i5/OS, OS/400)</a></li>
64		  <li><a href="#HowToCrossCompileICU">How to Cross Compile ICU</a></li>
65        </ul>
66      </li>
69      <li><a href="#HowToPackage">How To Package ICU</a></li>
71      <li>
72        <a href="#ImportantNotes">Important Notes About Using ICU</a> 
74        <ul >
75          <li><a href="#ImportantNotesMultithreaded">Using ICU in a Multithreaded
76          Environment</a></li>
78          <li><a href="#ImportantNotesWindows">Windows Platform</a></li>
80          <li><a href="#ImportantNotesUNIX">UNIX Type Platforms</a></li>
81        </ul>
82      </li>
84      <li>
85        <a href="#PlatformDependencies">Platform Dependencies</a> 
87        <ul >
88          <li><a href="#PlatformDependenciesNew">Porting To A New
89          Platform</a></li>
91          <li><a href="#PlatformDependenciesImpl">Platform Dependent
92          Implementations</a></li>
93        </ul>
94      </li>
95    </ul>
96    <hr />
98    <h2><a name="Introduction" href="#Introduction" id=
99    "Introduction">Introduction</a></h2>
101    <p>Today's software market is a global one in which it is desirable to
102    develop and maintain one application (single source/single binary) that
103    supports a wide variety of languages. The International Components for
104    Unicode (ICU) libraries provide robust and full-featured Unicode services on
105    a wide variety of platforms to help this design goal. The ICU libraries
106    provide support for:</p>
108    <ul>
109      <li>The latest version of the Unicode standard</li>
111      <li>Character set conversions with support for over 220 codepages</li>
113      <li>Locale data for more than 260 locales</li>
115      <li>Language sensitive text collation (sorting) and searching based on the
116      Unicode Collation Algorithm (=ISO 14651)</li>
118      <li>Regular expression matching and Unicode sets</li>
120      <li>Transformations for normalization, upper/lowercase, script
121      transliterations (50+ pairs)</li>
123      <li>Resource bundles for storing and accessing localized information</li>
125      <li>Date/Number/Message formatting and parsing of culture specific
126      input/output formats</li>
128      <li>Calendar specific date and time manipulation</li>
130      <li>Complex text layout for Arabic, Hebrew, Indic and Thai</li>
132      <li>Text boundary analysis for finding characters, word and sentence
133      boundaries</li>
134    </ul>
136    <p>ICU has a sister project ICU4J that extends the internationalization
137    capabilities of Java to a level similar to ICU. The ICU C/C++ project is also
138    called ICU4C when a distinction is necessary.</p>
140    <h2><a name="GettingStarted" href="#GettingStarted" id=
141    "GettingStarted">Getting started</a></h2>
143    <p>This document describes how to build and install ICU on your machine. For
144    other information about ICU please see the following table of links.<br />
145     The ICU homepage also links to related information about writing
146    internationalized software.</p>
148    <table class="docTable" summary="These are some useful links regarding ICU and internationalization in general.">
149      <caption>
150        Here are some useful links regarding ICU and internationalization in
151        general.
152      </caption>
154      <tr>
155        <td>ICU, ICU4C &amp; ICU4J Homepage</td>
157        <td><a href=
158        ""></a></td>
159      </tr>
161      <tr>
162        <td>FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions about ICU</td>
164        <td><a href=
165        ""></a></td>
166      </tr>
168      <tr>
169        <td>ICU User's Guide</td>
171        <td><a href=
172        ""></a></td>
173      </tr>
175      <tr>
176        <td>How To Use ICU</td>
178        <td><a href=""></a></td>
179      </tr>
181      <tr>
182        <td>Download ICU Releases</td>
184        <td><a href=
185        ""></a></td>
186      </tr>
188      <tr>
189        <td>ICU4C API Documentation Online</td>
191        <td><a href=
192        ""></a></td>
193      </tr>
195      <tr>
196        <td>Online ICU Demos</td>
198        <td><a href=
199        ""></a></td>
200      </tr>
202      <tr>
203        <td>Contacts and Bug Reports/Feature Requests</td>
205        <td><a href=
206        ""></a></td>
207      </tr>
208    </table>
210    <p><strong>Important:</strong> Please make sure you understand the <a href=
211    "license.html">Copyright and License Information</a>.</p>
213    <h2><a name="News" href="#News" id="News">What is new in this
214    release?</a></h2>
216    <p>To see which APIs are new or changed in this release, view the <a href="APIChangeReport.html">ICU4C API Change Report</a>. </p>
218    <p>The following list concentrates on <em>changes that affect existing
219    applications migrating from previous ICU releases</em>.
220    For more news about
221    this release, see the <a href="">ICU
222    download page</a>.</p>
224    <h3>C++ namespace support required</h3>
225    <p>ICU4C 49 requires C++ namespace support.
226    As a result, for example, rather than <code>U_NAMESPACE_QUALIFIER UnicodeString</code>
227    you can now simply write <code>icu::UnicodeString</code>.</p>
229    <h3>One shared platform.h</h3>
230    <p>ICU4C 49 does not generate any source code files via autoconf any more.
231    Instead, platform.h itself is now a normal source header file,
232    and determines platform-specific settings via <code>#if ...</code> etc.</p>
234    <p>(See the <a href="">User Guide How To Use ICU chapter</a>.)</p>
236    <p>As a result, it is easier to cross-compile ICU4C and/or use different build systems.
237    No more headers are <code>#include</code>d from the build-output directory,
238    and all platforms use the same set of source code files.</p>
240    <p>However, it is likely that ICU4C 49 will not compile on some platforms
241    (non-POSIX and/or older/unusual compilers etc.) that the ICU team did not test.
242    As a temporary workaround, any platform-dependent macro for which <code>platform.h</code>
243    does not determine the correct value can be predefined via <code>CPPFLAGS</code>
244    or by adding an explicit <code>#define ...</code> into <code>platform.h</code>
245    before it first tests that macro.</p>
247    <p>Please submit a bug ticket per platform with details about your compiler,
248    its version and its predefined macros.
249    (For example, preprocessing an empty source file with gcc's <code>-dM</code> option
250    outputs all of gcc's predefined macros: <code>gcc -E -dM -x c /dev/null | sort</code>)
251    A patch to fix the problem would be welcome too!</p>
253    <h2><a name="Download" href="#Download" id="Download">How To Download the
254    Source Code</a></h2>
256    <p>There are two ways to download ICU releases:</p>
258    <ul>
259      <li><strong>Official Release Snapshot:</strong><br />
260       If you want to use ICU (as opposed to developing it), you should download
261      an official packaged version of the ICU source code. These versions are
262      tested more thoroughly than day-to-day development builds of the system,
263      and they are packaged in zip and tar files for convenient download. These
264      packaged files can be found at <a href=
265      ""></a>.<br />
266       The packaged snapshots are named <strong></strong> or
267      <strong>icu-nnnn.tgz</strong>, where nnnn is the version number. The .zip
268      file is used for Windows platforms, while the .tgz file is preferred on
269      most other platforms.<br />
270       Please unzip this file. </li>
272      <li><strong>Subversion Source Repository:</strong><br />
273       If you are interested in developing features, patches, or bug fixes for
274      ICU, you should probably be working with the latest version of the ICU
275      source code. You will need to check the code out of our Subversion repository to
276      ensure that you have the most recent version of all of the files. See our
277      <a href="">source
278      repository</a> for details.</li>
279    </ul>
281    <h2><a name="SourceCode" href="#SourceCode" id="SourceCode">ICU Source Code
282    Organization</a></h2>
284    <p>In the descriptions below, <strong><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i></strong> is the full
285    path name of the ICU directory (the top level directory from the distribution
286    archives) in your file system. You can also view the <a href=
287    "">ICU Architectural
288    Design</a> section of the User's Guide to see which libraries you need for
289    your software product. You need at least the data (<code>[lib]icudt</code>)
290    and the common (<code>[lib]icuuc</code>) libraries in order to use ICU.</p>
292    <table class="docTable" summary="The following files describe the code drop.">
293      <caption>
294        The following files describe the code drop.
295      </caption>
297      <tr>
298        <th scope="col">File</th>
300        <th scope="col">Description</th>
301      </tr>
303      <tr>
304        <td>readme.html</td>
306        <td>Describes the International Components for Unicode (this file)</td>
307      </tr>
309      <tr>
310        <td>license.html</td>
312        <td>Contains the text of the ICU license</td>
313      </tr>
314    </table>
316    <p><br />
317    </p>
319    <table class="docTable" summary=
320    "The following directories contain source code and data files.">
321      <caption>
322        The following directories contain source code and data files.
323      </caption>
325      <tr>
326        <th scope="col">Directory</th>
328        <th scope="col">Description</th>
329      </tr>
331      <tr>
332        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>common</b>/</td>
334        <td>The core Unicode and support functionality, such as resource bundles,
335        character properties, locales, codepage conversion, normalization,
336        Unicode properties, Locale, and UnicodeString.</td>
337      </tr>
339      <tr>
340        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>i18n</b>/</td>
342        <td>Modules in i18n are generally the more data-driven, that is to say
343        resource bundle driven, components. These deal with higher-level
344        internationalization issues such as formatting, collation, text break
345        analysis, and transliteration.</td>
346      </tr>
348      <tr>
349        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>layout</b>/</td>
351        <td>Contains the ICU layout engine (not a rasterizer).</td>
352      </tr>
354      <tr>
355        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>io</b>/</td>
357        <td>Contains the ICU I/O library.</td>
358      </tr>
360      <tr>
361        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>data</b>/</td>
363        <td>
364          <p>This directory contains the source data in text format, which is
365          compiled into binary form during the ICU build process. It contains
366          several subdirectories, in which the data files are grouped by
367          function. Note that the build process must be run again after any
368          changes are made to this directory.</p>
370          <p>If some of the following directories are missing, it's probably
371          because you got an official download. If you need the data source files
372          for customization, then please download the ICU source code from <a
373          href="">subversion</a>.</p>
375          <ul>
376            <li><b>in/</b> A directory that contains a pre-built data library for
377            ICU. A standard source code package will contain this file without
378            several of the following directories. This is to simplify the build
379            process for the majority of users and to reduce platform porting
380            issues.</li>
382            <li><b>brkitr/</b> Data files for character, word, sentence, title
383            casing and line boundary analysis.</li>
385            <li><b>locales/</b> These .txt files contain ICU language and
386            culture-specific localization data. Two special bundles are
387            <b>root</b>, which is the fallback data and parent of other bundles,
388            and <b>index</b>, which contains a list of installed bundles. The
389            makefile <b></b> contains the list of resource bundle
390            files.</li>
392            <li><b>mappings/</b> Here are the code page converter tables. These
393            .ucm files contain mappings to and from Unicode. These are compiled
394            into .cnv files. <b>convrtrs.txt</b> is the alias mapping table from
395            various converter name formats to ICU internal format and vice versa.
396            It produces The makefiles <b>,
397  ,</b> and <b></b> contain the list of
398            converters to be built.</li>
400            <li><b>translit/</b> This directory contains transliterator rules as
401            resource bundles, a makefile <b></b> containing the list
402            of installed system translitaration files, and as well the special
403            bundle <b>translit_index</b> which lists the system transliterator
404            aliases.</li>
406            <li><b>unidata/</b> This directory contains the Unicode data files.
407            Please see <a href=
408            ""></a> for more
409            information.</li>
411            <li><b>misc/</b> The misc directory contains other data files which
412            did not fit into the above categories. Currently it only contains
413            time zone information, and a name preperation file for <a href=
414            "">IDNA</a>.</li>
416            <li><b>out/</b> This directory contains the assembled memory mapped
417            files.</li>
419            <li><b>out/build/</b> This directory contains intermediate (compiled)
420            files, such as .cnv, .res, etc.</li>
421          </ul>
423          <p>If you are creating a special ICU build, you can set the ICU_DATA
424          environment variable to the out/ or the out/build/ directories, but
425          this is generally discouraged because most people set it incorrectly.
426          You can view the <a href=
427          "">ICU Data
428          Management</a> section of the ICU User's Guide for details.</p>
429        </td>
430      </tr>
432      <tr>
433        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/test/<b>intltest</b>/</td>
435        <td>A test suite including all C++ APIs. For information about running
436        the test suite, see the build instructions specific to your platform
437        later in this document.</td>
438      </tr>
440      <tr>
441        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/test/<b>cintltst</b>/</td>
443        <td>A test suite written in C, including all C APIs. For information
444        about running the test suite, see the build instructions specific to your
445        platform later in this document.</td>
446      </tr>
448      <tr>
449        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/test/<b>iotest</b>/</td>
451        <td>A test suite written in C and C++ to test the icuio library. For
452        information about running the test suite, see the build instructions
453        specific to your platform later in this document.</td>
454      </tr>
456      <tr>
457        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/test/<b>testdata</b>/</td>
459        <td>Source text files for data, which are read by the tests. It contains
460        the subdirectories <b>out/build/</b> which is used for intermediate
461        files, and <b>out/</b> which contains <b>testdata.dat.</b></td>
462      </tr>
464      <tr>
465        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>tools</b>/</td>
467        <td>Tools for generating the data files. Data files are generated by
468        invoking <i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/data/build/makedata.bat on Win32 or
469        <i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/make on UNIX.</td>
470      </tr>
472      <tr>
473        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>samples</b>/</td>
475        <td>Various sample programs that use ICU</td>
476      </tr>
478      <tr>
479        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>extra</b>/</td>
481        <td>Non-supported API additions. Currently, it contains the 'uconv' tool
482        to perform codepage conversion on files.</td>
483      </tr>
485      <tr>
486        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/<b>packaging</b>/</td>
488        <td>This directory contain scripts and tools for packaging the final
489        ICU build for various release platforms.</td>
490      </tr>
492      <tr>
493        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>config</b>/</td>
495        <td>Contains helper makefiles for platform specific build commands. Used
496        by 'configure'.</td>
497      </tr>
499      <tr>
500        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/source/<b>allinone</b>/</td>
502        <td>Contains top-level ICU workspace and project files, for instance to
503        build all of ICU under one MSVC project.</td>
504      </tr>
506      <tr>
507        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/<b>include</b>/</td>
509        <td>Contains the headers needed for developing software that uses ICU on
510        Windows.</td>
511      </tr>
513      <tr>
514        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/<b>lib</b>/</td>
516        <td>Contains the import libraries for linking ICU into your Windows
517        application.</td>
518      </tr>
520      <tr>
521        <td><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>/<b>bin</b>/</td>
523        <td>Contains the libraries and executables for using ICU on Windows.</td>
524      </tr>
525    </table>
526    <!-- end of ICU structure ==================================== -->
528    <h2><a name="HowToBuild" href="#HowToBuild" id="HowToBuild">How To Build And
529    Install ICU</a></h2>
531    <h3><a name="RecBuild" href="#RecBuild" id=
532    "RecBuild">Recommended Build Options</a></h3>
534    <p>Depending on the platform and the type of installation,
535    we recommend a small number of modifications and build options.</p>
536    <ul>
537      <li><b>Namespace:</b> By default, unicode/uversion.h has
538        "using namespace icu;" which defeats much of the purpose of the namespace.
539        (This is for historical reasons: Originally, ICU4C did not use namespaces,
540        and some compilers did not support them. The default "using" statement
541        preserves source code compatibility.)<br />
542        We recommend you turn this off via <code>-DU_USING_ICU_NAMESPACE=0</code>
543        or by modifying unicode/uversion.h:
544<pre>Index: source/common/unicode/uversion.h
546--- source/common/unicode/uversion.h    (revision 26606)
547+++ source/common/unicode/uversion.h    (working copy)
548@@ -180,7 +180,8 @@
551 #   ifndef U_USING_ICU_NAMESPACE
552-#       define U_USING_ICU_NAMESPACE 1
553+        // Set to 0 to force namespace declarations in ICU usage.
554+#       define U_USING_ICU_NAMESPACE 0
555 #   endif
557         U_NAMESPACE_USE
559        ICU call sites then either qualify ICU types explicitly,
560        for example <code>icu::UnicodeString</code>,
561        or do <code>using icu::UnicodeString;</code> where appropriate.</li>
562      <li><b>Hardcode the default charset to UTF-8:</b> On platforms where
563        the default charset is always UTF-8,
564        like MacOS X and some Linux distributions,
565        we recommend hardcoding ICU's default charset to UTF-8.
566        This means that some implementation code becomes simpler and faster,
567        and statically linked ICU libraries become smaller.
568        (See the <a href="">U_CHARSET_IS_UTF8</a>
569        API documentation for more details.)<br />
570        You can <code>-DU_CHARSET_IS_UTF8=1</code> or
571        modify unicode/utypes.h (in ICU 4.8 and below)
572        or modify unicode/platform.h (in ICU 49 and higher):
573<pre>Index: source/common/unicode/utypes.h
575--- source/common/unicode/utypes.h      (revision 26606)
576+++ source/common/unicode/utypes.h      (working copy)
577@@ -160,7 +160,7 @@
579  */
580 #ifndef U_CHARSET_IS_UTF8
581-#   define U_CHARSET_IS_UTF8 0
582+#   define U_CHARSET_IS_UTF8 1
583 #endif
585 /*===========================================================================*/
587      <li><b>UnicodeString constructors:</b> The UnicodeString class has
588        several single-argument constructors that are not marked "explicit"
589        for historical reasons.
590        This can lead to inadvertent construction of a <code>UnicodeString</code>
591        with a single character by using an integer,
592        and it can lead to inadvertent dependency on the conversion framework
593        by using a C string literal.<br />
594        Beginning with ICU 49, you should do the following:
595        <ul>
596          <li>Consider marking the from-<code>UChar</code>
597            and from-<code>UChar32</code> constructors explicit via
598            <code>-DUNISTR_FROM_CHAR_EXPLICIT=explicit</code> or similar.</li>
599          <li>Consider marking the from-<code>const char*</code> and
600            from-<code>const UChar*</code> constructors explicit via
601            <code>-DUNISTR_FROM_STRING_EXPLICIT=explicit</code> or similar.</li>
602        </ul>
603        Note: The ICU test suites cannot be compiled with these settings.
604      </li>
605      <li><b>utf.h, utf8.h, utf16.h, utf_old.h:</b>
606        By default, utypes.h (and thus almost every public ICU header)
607        includes all of these header files.
608        Often, none of them are needed, or only one or two of them.
609        All of utf_old.h is deprecated or obsolete.<br />
610        Beginning with ICU 49,
611        you should define <code>U_NO_DEFAULT_INCLUDE_UTF_HEADERS</code> to 1
612        (via -D or uconfig.h, as above)
613        and include those header files explicitly that you actually need.<br />
614        Note: The ICU test suites cannot be compiled with this setting.</li>
615      <li><b>.dat file:</b> By default, the ICU data is built into
616        a shared library (DLL). This is convenient because it requires no
617        install-time or runtime configuration,
618        but the library is platform-specific and cannot be modified.
619        A .dat package file makes the opposite trade-off:
620        Platform-portable (except for endianness and charset family, which
621        can be changed with the icupkg tool)
622        and modifiable (also with the icupkg tool).
623        If a path is set, then single data files (e.g., .res files)
624        can be copied to that location to provide new locale data
625        or conversion tables etc.<br />
626        The only drawback with a .dat package file is that the application
627        needs to provide ICU with the file system path to the package file
628        (e.g., by calling <code>u_setDataDirectory()</code>)
629        or with a pointer to the data (<code>udata_setCommonData()</code>)
630        before other ICU API calls.
631        This is usually easy if ICU is used from an application where
632        <code>main()</code> takes care of such initialization.
633        It may be hard if ICU is shipped with
634        another shared library (such as the Xerces-C++ XML parser)
635        which does not control <code>main()</code>.<br />
636        See the <a href="">User Guide ICU Data</a>
637        chapter for more details.<br />
638        If possible, we recommend building the .dat package.
639        Specify <code>--with-data-packaging=archive</code>
640        on the configure command line, as in<br />
641        <code>runConfigureICU Linux --with-data-packaging=archive</code><br />
642        (Read the configure script's output for further instructions.
643        On Windows, the Visual Studio build generates both the .dat package
644        and the data DLL.)<br />
645        Be sure to install and use the tiny stubdata library
646        rather than the large data DLL.</li>
647      <li><b>Static libraries:</b> It may make sense to build the ICU code
648        into static libraries (.a) rather than shared libraries (.so/.dll).
649        Static linking reduces the overall size of the binary by removing
650        code that is never called.<br />
651        Example configure command line:<br />
652        <code>runConfigureICU Linux --enable-static --disable-shared</code></li>
653      <li><b>Out-of-source build:</b> It is usually desirable to keep the ICU
654        source file tree clean and have build output files written to
655        a different location. This is called an "out-of-source build".
656        Simply invoke the configure script from the target location:
657<pre>~/icu$ svn export
658~/icu$ mkdir trunk-dev
659~/icu$ cd trunk-dev
660~/icu/trunk-dev$ /trunk/source/runConfigureICU Linux
661~/icu/trunk-dev$ make check</pre></li>
662    </ul>
663    <h4>ICU as a System-Level Library</h4>
664    <p>If ICU is installed as a system-level library, there are further
665      opportunities and restrictions to consider.
666      For details, see the <em>Using ICU as an Operating System Level Library</em>
667      section of the <a href="">User Guide ICU Architectural Design</a> chapter.</p>
668    <ul>
669      <li><b>Data path:</b> For a system-level library, it is best to load
670        ICU data from the .dat package file because the file system path
671        to the .dat package file can be hardcoded. ICU will automatically set
672        the path to the final install location using U_ICU_DATA_DEFAULT_DIR.
673        Alternatively, you can set <code>-DICU_DATA_DIR=/path/to/icu/data</code>
674        when building the ICU code. (Used by source/common/putil.c.)<br />
675        Consider also setting <code>-DICU_NO_USER_DATA_OVERRIDE</code>
676        if you do not want the "ICU_DATA" environment variable to be used.
677        (An application can still override the data path via
678        <code>u_setDataDirectory()</code> or
679        <code>udata_setCommonData()</code>.</li>
680      <li><b>Hide draft API:</b> API marked with <code>@draft</code>
681        is new and not yet stable. Applications must not rely on unstable
682        APIs from a system-level library.
683        Define <code>U_HIDE_DRAFT_API</code>, <code>U_HIDE_INTERNAL_API</code>
684        and <code>U_HIDE_SYSTEM_API</code>
685        by modifying unicode/utypes.h before installing it.</li>
686      <li><b>Only C APIs:</b> Applications must not rely on C++ APIs from a
687        system-level library because binary C++ compatibility
688        across library and compiler versions is very hard to achieve.
689        Most ICU C++ APIs are in header files that contain a comment with
690        <code>\brief C++ API</code>.
691        Consider not installing these header files.</li>
692      <li><b>Disable renaming:</b> By default, ICU library entry point names
693        have an ICU version suffix. Turn this off for a system-level installation,
694        to enable upgrading ICU without breaking applications. For example:<br />
695        <code>runConfigureICU Linux --disable-renaming</code><br />
696        The public header files from this configuration must be installed
697        for applications to include and get the correct entry point names.</li>
698    </ul>
700    <h3><a name="UserConfig" href="#UserConfig" id="UserConfig">User-Configurable Settings</a></h3>
701    <p>ICU4C can be customized via a number of user-configurable settings.
702    Many of them are controlled by preprocessor macros which are
703    defined in the <code>source/common/unicode/uconfig.h</code> header file.
704    Some turn off parts of ICU, for example conversion or collation,
705    trading off a smaller library for reduced functionality.
706    Other settings are recommended (see previous section)
707    but their default values are set for better source code compatibility.</p>
709    <p>In order to change such user-configurable settings, you can
710    either modify the <code>uconfig.h</code> header file by adding
711    a specific <code>#define ...</code> for one or more of the macros
712    before they are first tested,
713    or set the compiler's preprocessor flags (<code>CPPFLAGS</code>) to include
714    an equivalent <code>-D</code> macro definition.</p>
716    <h3><a name="HowToBuildWindows" href="#HowToBuildWindows" id=
717    "HowToBuildWindows">How To Build And Install On Windows</a></h3>
719    <p>Building International Components for Unicode requires:</p>
721    <ul>
722      <li>Microsoft Windows</li>
724      <li>Microsoft Visual C++</li>
726      <li><a href="#HowToBuildCygwin">Cygwin</a> is required when other versions
727      of Microsoft Visual C++ and other compilers are used to build ICU.</li>
728    </ul>
730    <p>The steps are:</p>
732    <ol>
733      <li>Unzip the file into any convenient location. Using command
734      line zip, type "unzip -a -d drive:\directory", or just use
735      WinZip.</li>
737      <li>Be sure that the ICU binary directory, <i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\bin\, is
738      included in the <strong>PATH</strong> environment variable. The tests will
739      not work without the location of the ICU DLL files in the path.</li>
741      <li>Open the "<i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\source\allinone\allinone.sln" workspace
742      file in Microsoft Visual Studio. (This solution includes all the
743      International Components for Unicode libraries, necessary ICU building
744      tools, and the test suite projects). Please see the <a href=
745      "#HowToBuildWindowsCommandLine">command line note below</a> if you want to
746      build from the command line instead.</li>
748      <li>Set the active platform to "Win32" or "x64" (See <a href="#HowToBuildWindowsPlatform">Windows platform note</a> below) 
749      and configuration to "Debug" or "Release" (See <a href="#HowToBuildWindowsConfig">Windows configuration note</a> below).</li>
751      <li>Choose the "Build" menu and select "Rebuild Solution". If you want to
752      build the Debug and Release at the same time, see the <a href=
753      "#HowToBuildWindowsBatch">batch configuration note</a> below.</li>
756      <li>Run the tests. They can be run from the command line or from within Visual Studio.
758	 <h4>Running the Tests from the Windows Command Line (cmd)</h4>
759	<ul>
760	   <li>For x86 (32 bit) and Debug, use: <br />
762	<tt><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\source\allinone\icucheck.bat  <i>Platform</i> <i>Configuration</i>
763		</tt> <br />
764       </li>
765	<li>So, for example:
766				 <br />
767		<tt><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\source\allinone\icucheck.bat  <b>x86</b> <b>Debug</b>
768		</tt>
769				<br/>  or <br />
770		<tt><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\source\allinone\icucheck.bat  <b>x86</b> <b>Release</b>
771		</tt>
772				<br/>  or <br />
773		<tt><i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\source\allinone\icucheck.bat  <b>x64</b> <b>Release</b>
774		</tt></li>
775	</ul>	
777         <h4>Running the Tests from within Visual Studio</h4>
779	<ol>
780      <li>Run the C++ test suite, "intltest". To do this: set the active startup
781      project to "intltest", and press Ctrl+F5 to run it. Make sure that it
782      passes without any errors.</li>
784      <li>Run the C test suite, "cintltst". To do this: set the active startup
785      project to "cintltst", and press Ctrl+F5 to run it. Make sure that it
786      passes without any errors.</li>
788      <li>Run the I/O test suite, "iotest". To do this: set the active startup
789      project to "iotest", and press Ctrl+F5 to run it. Make sure that it passes
790      without any errors.</li>
792	</ol>
794	</li>
796      <li>You are now able to develop applications with ICU by using the
797      libraries and tools in <i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\bin\. The headers are in
798      <i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\include\ and the link libraries are in
799      <i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\lib\. To install the ICU runtime on a machine, or ship
800      it with your application, copy the needed components from
801      <i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\bin\ to a location on the system PATH or to your
802      application directory.</li>
803    </ol>
805    <p><a name="HowToBuildWindowsCommandLine" id=
806    "HowToBuildWindowsCommandLine"><strong>Using MSDEV At The Command Line
807    Note:</strong></a> You can build ICU from the command line. Assuming that you
808    have properly installed Microsoft Visual C++ to support command line
809    execution, you can run the following command, '
810    <i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\source\allinone\allinone.sln /build "Win32|Release"'. You can also
811    use Cygwin with this compiler to build ICU, and you can refer to the <a href=
812    "#HowToBuildCygwin">How To Build And Install On Windows with Cygwin</a>
813    section for more details.</p>
815    <p><a name="HowToBuildWindowsPlatform" id=
816    "HowToBuildWindowsPlatform"><strong>Setting Active Platform
817    Note:</strong></a> Even though you are able to select "x64" as the active platform, if your operating system is 
818    not a 64 bit version of Windows, the build will fail. To set the active platform, two different possibilities are:</p>
820    <ul>
821      <li>Choose "Build" menu, select "Configuration Manager...", and select
822      "Win32" or "x64" for the Active Platform Solution.</li>
824      <li>Another way is to select the desired build configuration from "Solution
825      Platforms" dropdown menu from the standard toolbar. It will say
826      "Win32" or "x64" in the dropdown list.</li>
827    </ul>
829    <p><a name="HowToBuildWindowsConfig" id=
830    "HowToBuildWindowsConfig"><strong>Setting Active Configuration
831    Note:</strong></a> To set the active configuration, two different
832    possibilities are:</p>
834    <ul>
835      <li>Choose "Build" menu, select "Configuration Manager...", and select
836      "Release" or "Debug" for the Active Configuration Solution.</li>
838      <li>Another way is to select the desired build configuration from "Solution
839      Configurations" dropdown menu from the standard toolbar. It will say
840      "Release" or "Debug" in the dropdown list.</li>
841    </ul>
843    <p><a name="HowToBuildWindowsBatch" id="HowToBuildWindowsBatch"><strong>Batch
844    Configuration Note:</strong></a> If you want to build the Win32 and x64 platforms and 
845    Debug and Release configurations at the same time, choose "Build" menu, and select "Batch
846    Build...". Click the "Select All" button, and then click the "Rebuild"
847    button.</p>
849    <h3><a name="HowToBuildCygwin" href="#HowToBuildCygwin" id=
850    "HowToBuildCygwin">How To Build And Install On Windows with Cygwin</a></h3>
852    <p>Building International Components for Unicode with this configuration
853    requires:</p>
855    <ul>
856      <li>Microsoft Windows</li>
858      <li>Microsoft Visual C++ (when gcc isn't used).</li>
860      <li>
861        Cygwin with the following installed: 
863        <ul>
864          <li>bash</li>
866          <li>GNU make</li>
868          <li>ar</li>
870          <li>ranlib</li>
872          <li>man (if you plan to look at the man pages)</li>
873        </ul>
874      </li>
875    </ul>
877    <p>There are two ways you can build ICU with Cygwin. You can build with gcc
878    or Microsoft Visual C++. If you use gcc, the resulting libraries and tools
879    will depend on the Cygwin environment. If you use Microsoft Visual C++, the
880    resulting libraries and tools do not depend on Cygwin and can be more easily
881    distributed to other Windows computers (the generated man pages and shell
882    scripts still need Cygwin). To build with gcc, please follow the "<a href=
883    "#HowToBuildUNIX">How To Build And Install On UNIX</a>" instructions, while
884    you are inside a Cygwin bash shell. To build with Microsoft Visual C++,
885    please use the following instructions:</p>
887    <ol>
888      <li>Start the Windows "Command Prompt" window. This is different from the
889      gcc build, which requires the Cygwin Bash command prompt. The Microsoft
890      Visual C++ compiler will not work with a bash command prompt.</li>
892      <li>If the computer isn't set up to use Visual C++ from the command line,
893      you need to run vcvars32.bat.<br />For example:<br />"<tt>C:\Program Files\Microsoft
894      Visual Studio 8\VC\bin\vcvars32.bat</tt>" can be used for 32-bit builds
895      <strong>or</strong> <br />"<tt>C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio
896      8\VC\bin\amd64\vcvarsamd64.bat</tt>" can be used for 64-bit builds on
897      Windows x64.</li>
899      <li>Unzip the file into any convenient location. Using command
900      line zip, type "unzip -a -d drive:\directory", or just use
901      WinZip.</li>
903      <li>Change directory to "icu/source", which is where you unzipped ICU.</li>
905      <li>Run "<tt>bash <a href="source/runConfigureICU">/runConfigureICU</a>
906      Cygwin/MSVC</tt>" (See <a href="#HowToWindowsConfigureICU">Windows
907      configuration note</a> and non-functional configure options below).</li>
909      <li>Type <tt>"make"</tt> to compile the libraries and all the data files.
910      This make command should be GNU make.</li>
912      <li>Optionally, type <tt>"make check"</tt> to run the test suite, which
913      checks for ICU's functionality integrity (See <a href=
914      "#HowToTestWithoutGmake">testing note</a> below).</li>
916      <li>Type <tt>"make install"</tt> to install ICU. If you used the --prefix=
917      option on configure or runConfigureICU, ICU will be installed to the
918      directory you specified. (See <a href="#HowToInstallICU">installation
919      note</a> below).</li>
920    </ol>
922    <p><a name="HowToWindowsConfigureICU" id=
923    "HowToWindowsConfigureICU"><strong>Configuring ICU on Windows
924    NOTE:</strong></a> </p>
925    <p>
926    Ensure that the order of the PATH is MSVC, Cygwin, and then other PATHs. The configure 
927    script needs certain tools in Cygwin (e.g. grep).
928    </p>
929    <p>
930    Also, you may need to run <tt>"dos2unix.exe"</tt> on all of the scripts (e.g. configure)
931    in the top source directory of ICU. To avoid this issue, you can download
932    the ICU source for Unix platforms (icu-xxx.tgz).
933    </p>
934    <p>In addition to the Unix <a href=
935    "#HowToConfigureICU">configuration note</a> the following configure options
936    currently do not work on Windows with Microsoft's compiler. Some options can
937    work by manually editing <tt>icu/source/common/unicode/pwin32.h</tt>, but
938    manually editing the files is not recommended.</p>
940    <ul>
941      <li><tt>--disable-renaming</tt></li>
943      <li><tt>--disable-threading</tt> (This flag does disable threading in ICU,
944      but the resulting ICU library will still be linked with MSVC's multithread DLL)</li>
946      <li><tt>--enable-tracing</tt></li>
948      <li><tt>--enable-rpath</tt></li>
950      <li><tt>--with-iostream</tt></li>
952      <li><tt>--enable-static</tt> (Requires that U_STATIC_IMPLEMENTATION be
953      defined in user code that links against ICU's static libraries.)</li>
955      <li><tt>--with-data-packaging=files</tt> (The pkgdata tool currently does
956      not work in this mode. Manual packaging is required to use this mode.)</li>
957    </ul>
959    <h3><a name="HowToBuildUNIX" href="#HowToBuildUNIX" id="HowToBuildUNIX">How
960    To Build And Install On UNIX</a></h3>
962    <p>Building International Components for Unicode on UNIX requires:</p>
964    <ul>
965      <li>A C++ compiler installed on the target machine (for example: gcc, CC,
966      xlC_r, aCC, cxx, etc...).</li>
968      <li>An ANSI C compiler installed on the target machine (for example:
969      cc).</li>
971      <li>A recent version of GNU make (3.80+).</li>
973      <li>For a list of z/OS tools please view the <a href="#HowToBuildZOS">z/OS
974      build section</a> of this document for further details.</li>
975    </ul>
977    <p>Here are the steps to build ICU:</p>
979    <ol>
980      <li>Decompress the icu-<i>X</i>.<i>Y</i>.tgz (or
981      icu-<i>X</i>.<i>Y</i>.tar.gz) file. For example, <tt>"gunzip -d &lt;
982      icu-<i>X</i>.<i>Y</i>.tgz | tar xvf -"</tt></li>
984      <li>Change directory to the "icu/source".</li>
986      <li>Run <tt>"chmod +x runConfigureICU configure install-sh"</tt> because
987      these files may have the wrong permissions.</li>
989      <li>Run the <tt><a href="source/runConfigureICU">runConfigureICU</a></tt>
990      script for your platform. (See <a href="#HowToConfigureICU">configuration
991      note</a> below).</li>
993      <li>Type <tt>"gmake"</tt> (or "make" if GNU make is the default make on
994      your platform) to compile the libraries and all the data files. The proper
995      name of the GNU make command is printed at the end of the configuration
996      run, as in "You must use gmake to compile ICU".</li>
998      <li>Optionally, type <tt>"gmake check"</tt> to run the test suite, which
999      checks for ICU's functionality integrity (See <a href=
1000      "#HowToTestWithoutGmake">testing note</a> below).</li>
1002      <li>Type <tt>"gmake install"</tt> to install ICU. If you used the --prefix=
1003      option on configure or runConfigureICU, ICU will be installed to the
1004      directory you specified. (See <a href="#HowToInstallICU">installation
1005      note</a> below).</li>
1006    </ol>
1008    <p><a name="HowToConfigureICU" id="HowToConfigureICU"><strong>Configuring ICU
1009    NOTE:</strong></a> Type <tt>"/runConfigureICU --help"</tt> for help on how
1010    to run it and a list of supported platforms. You may also want to type
1011    <tt>"/configure --help"</tt> to print the available configure options that
1012    you may want to give runConfigureICU. If you are not using the
1013    runConfigureICU script, or your platform is not supported by the script, you
1014    may need to set your CC, CXX, CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS environment variables, and
1015    type <tt>"/configure"</tt>. 
1016    HP-UX users, please see this <a href="#ImportantNotesHPUX">note regarding
1017    HP-UX multithreaded build issues</a> with newer compilers. Solaris users,
1018    please see this <a href="#ImportantNotesSolaris">note regarding Solaris
1019    multithreaded build issues</a>.</p>
1021    <p>ICU is built with strict compiler warnings enabled by default.  If this
1022    causes excessive numbers of warnings on your platform, use the --disable-strict
1023    option to configure to reduce the warning level.</p>
1025    <p><a name="HowToTestWithoutGmake" id="HowToTestWithoutGmake"><strong>Running
1026    The Tests From The Command Line NOTE:</strong></a> You may have to set
1027    certain variables if you with to run test programs individually, that is
1028    apart from "gmake check". The environment variable <strong>ICU_DATA</strong>
1029    can be set to the full pathname of the data directory to indicate where the
1030    locale data files and conversion mapping tables are when you are not using
1031    the shared library (e.g. by using the .dat archive or the individual data
1032    files). The trailing "/" is required after the directory name (e.g.
1033    "$Root/source/data/out/" will work, but the value "$Root/source/data/out" is
1034    not acceptable). You do not need to set <strong>ICU_DATA</strong> if the
1035    complete shared data library is in your library path.</p>
1037    <p><a name="HowToInstallICU" id="HowToInstallICU"><strong>Installing ICU
1038    NOTE:</strong></a> Some platforms use package management tools to control the
1039    installation and uninstallation of files on the system, as well as the
1040    integrity of the system configuration. You may want to check if ICU can be
1041    packaged for your package management tools by looking into the "packaging"
1042    directory. (Please note that if you are using a snapshot of ICU from Subversion, it
1043    is probable that the packaging scripts or related files are not up to date
1044    with the contents of ICU at this time, so use them with caution).</p>
1046    <h3><a name="HowToBuildZOS" href="#HowToBuildZOS" id="HowToBuildZOS">How To
1047    Build And Install On z/OS (OS/390)</a></h3>
1049    <p>You can install ICU on z/OS or OS/390 (the previous name of z/OS), but IBM
1050    tests only the z/OS installation. You install ICU in a z/OS UNIX system
1051    services file system such as HFS or zFS. On this platform, it is important
1052    that you understand a few details:</p>
1054    <ul>
1055      <li>The makedep and GNU make tools are required for building ICU. If it
1056      is not already installed on your system, it is available at the <a href=
1057      "">z/OS UNIX -
1058      Tools and Toys</a> site. The PATH environment variable should be updated to
1059      contain the location of this executable prior to build. Failure to add these
1060      tools to your PATH will cause ICU build failures or cause pkgdata to fail
1061      to run.</li>
1063      <li>Since USS does not support using the mmap() function over NFS, it is
1064      recommended that you build ICU on a local filesystem. Once ICU has been
1065      built, you should not have this problem while using ICU when the data
1066      library has been built as a shared library, which is this is the default
1067      setting.</li>
1069      <li>Encoding considerations: The source code assumes that it is compiled
1070      with codepage ibm-1047 (to be exact, the UNIX System Services variant of
1071      it). The pax command converts all of the source code files from ASCII to
1072      codepage ibm-1047 (USS) EBCDIC. However, some files are binary files and
1073      must not be converted, or must be converted back to their original state.
1074      You can use the <a href="as_is/os390/"></a> script
1075      to do this for you automatically. It will unpackage the tar file and
1076      convert all the necessary files for you automatically.</li>
1078      <li>z/OS supports both native S/390 hexadecimal floating point and (with
1079      OS/390 2.6 and later) IEEE 754 binary floating point. This is a compile
1080      time option. Applications built with IEEE should use ICU DLLs that are
1081      built with IEEE (and vice versa). The environment variable IEEE390=0 will
1082      cause the z/OS version of ICU to be built without IEEE floating point
1083      support and use the native hexadecimal floating point. By default ICU is
1084      built with IEEE 754 support. Native floating point support is sufficient
1085      for codepage conversion, resource bundle and UnicodeString operations, but
1086      the Format APIs require IEEE binary floating point.</li>
1088      <li>z/OS introduced the concept of Extra Performance Linkage (XPLINK) to
1089      bring performance improvement opportunities to call-intensive C and C++
1090      applications such as ICU. XPLINK is enabled on a DLL-by-DLL basis, so if
1091      you are considering using XPLINK in your application that uses ICU, you
1092      should consider building the XPLINK-enabled version of ICU. You need to
1093      set ICU's environment variable <code>OS390_XPLINK=1</code> prior to
1094      invoking the make process to produce binaries that are enabled for
1095      XPLINK. The XPLINK option, which is available for z/OS 1.2 and later,
1096      requires the PTF PQ69418 to build XPLINK enabled binaries.</li>
1098      <li>Currently in ICU 3.0, there is an issue with building on z/OS without
1099      XPLINK and with the C++ iostream. By default, the iostream library on z/OS
1100      is XPLINK enabled. If you are not building an XPLINK enabled version of
1101      ICU, you should use the <code>--with-iostream=old</code> configure option
1102      when using runConfigureICU. This will prevent applications that use the
1103      icuio library from crashing.</li>
1105      <li>Also note that on current versions of z/OS, the <a href=''>XPLINK version (C128) of the
1106      C++ standard library is standard.</a> Therefore you may see an error when running
1107      with XPLINK disabled. To avoid this error, set the following environment variable or similar:
1108      	<pre><a href=''>export _CXX_PSYSIX="CEE.SCEELIB(C128N)":"CBC.SCLBSID(IOSTREAM,COMPLEX)"</a></pre>
1109      </li>
1112      <li>The rest of the instructions for building and testing ICU on z/OS with
1113      UNIX System Services are the same as the <a href="#HowToBuildUNIX">How To
1114      Build And Install On UNIX</a> section.</li>
1115    </ul>
1117    <h4>z/OS (Batch/PDS) support outside the UNIX system services
1118    environment</h4>
1120    <p>By default, ICU builds its libraries into the UNIX file system (HFS). In
1121    addition, there is a z/OS specific environment variable (OS390BATCH) to build
1122    some libraries into the z/OS native file system. This is useful, for example,
1123    when your application is externalized via Job Control Language (JCL).</p>
1125    <p>The OS390BATCH environment variable enables non-UNIX support including the
1126    batch environment. When OS390BATCH is set, the libicui18n<i>XX</i>.dll,
1127    libicuuc<i>XX</i>.dll, and libicudt<i>XX</i>e.dll binaries are built into
1128    data sets (the native file system). Turning on OS390BATCH does not turn off
1129    the normal z/OS UNIX build. This means that the z/OS UNIX (HFS) DLLs will
1130    always be created.</p>
1132    <p>Two additional environment variables indicate the names of the z/OS data
1133    sets to use. The LOADMOD environment variable identifies the name of the data
1134    set that contains the dynamic link libraries (DLLs) and the LOADEXP
1135    environment variable identifies the name of the data set that contains the
1136    side decks, which are normally the files with the .x suffix in the UNIX file
1137    system.</p>
1139    <p>A data set is roughly equivalent to a UNIX or Windows file. For most kinds
1140    of data sets the operating system maintains record boundaries. UNIX and
1141    Windows files are byte streams. Two kinds of data sets are PDS and PDSE. Each
1142    data set of these two types contains a directory. It is like a UNIX
1143    directory. Each "file" is called a "member". Each member name is limited to
1144    eight bytes, normally EBCDIC.</p>
1146    <p>Here is an example of some environment variables that you can set prior to
1147    building ICU:</p>
1154    <p>The PDS member names for the DLL file names are as follows:</p>
1156<samp>IXMI<i>XX</i>IN --&gt; libicui18n<i>XX</i>.dll
1157IXMI<i>XX</i>UC --&gt; libicuuc<i>XX</i>.dll
1158IXMI<i>XX</i>DA --&gt; libicudt<i>XX</i>e.dll</samp>
1161    <p>You should point the LOADMOD environment variable at a partitioned data
1162    set extended (PDSE) and point the LOADEXP environment variable at a
1163    partitioned data set (PDS). The PDSE can be allocated with the following
1164    attributes:</p>
1166<samp>Data Set Name . . . : <i>USER</i>.ICU.LOAD
1167Management class. . : <i>**None**</i>
1168Storage class . . . : <i>BASE</i>
1169Volume serial . . . : <i>TSO007</i>
1170Device type . . . . : <i>3390</i>
1171Data class. . . . . : <i>LOAD</i>
1172Organization  . . . : PO
1173Record format . . . : U
1174Record length . . . : 0
1175Block size  . . . . : <i>32760</i>
11761st extent cylinders: 1
1177Secondary cylinders : 5
1178Data set name type  : LIBRARY</samp>
1181    <p>The PDS can be allocated with the following attributes:</p>
1183<samp>Data Set Name . . . : <i>USER</i>.ICU.EXP
1184Management class. . : <i>**None**</i>
1185Storage class . . . : <i>BASE</i>
1186Volume serial . . . : <i>TSO007</i>
1187Device type . . . . : <i>3390</i>
1188Data class. . . . . : <i>**None**</i>
1189Organization  . . . : PO
1190Record format . . . : FB
1191Record length . . . : 80
1192Block size  . . . . : <i>3200</i>
11931st extent cylinders: 3
1194Secondary cylinders : 3
1195Data set name type  : PDS</samp>
1198    <h3><a name="HowToBuildOS400" href="#HowToBuildOS400" id=
1199    "HowToBuildOS400">How To Build And Install On The IBM i Family (IBM i, i5/OS OS/400)</a></h3>
1201    <p>Before you start building ICU, ICU requires the following:</p>
1203    <ul>
1204      <li>QSHELL interpreter installed (install base option 30, operating system)
1205      <!--li>QShell Utilities, PRPQ 5799-XEH (not required for V4R5)</li--></li>
1207      <li>ILE C/C++ Compiler installed on the system</li>
1209      <li>The latest IBM tools for Developers for IBM i &mdash;
1210        <a href=''></a>
1211        <!-- formerly: -->
1212      </li>
1213    </ul>
1215    <p>The following describes how to setup and build ICU. For background
1216    information, you should look at the <a href="#HowToBuildUNIX">UNIX build
1217    instructions</a>.</p>
1219    <ol>
1220      <li>
1221        Create target library. This library will be the target for the
1222        resulting modules, programs and service programs. You will specify this
1223        library on the OUTPUTDIR environment variable.
1225<samp>CRTLIB LIB(<i>libraryname</i>)
1226ADDENVVAR ENVVAR(OUTPUTDIR) VALUE('<i>libraryname</i>') REPLACE(*YES)   </samp>
1228      </li>
1230      <li>
1231      Set up the following environment variables and job characteristics in your build process
1234CHGJOB CCSID(37)</samp>
1237      <li>Run <tt>'QSH'</tt></li>
1239      <li>Run: <br /><tt>export PATH=/QIBM/ProdData/DeveloperTools/qsh/bin:$PATH:/QOpenSys/usr/bin</tt>
1240      </li>
1242      <li>Run <b><tt>gzip -d</tt></b> on the ICU source code compressed tar archive
1243      (icu-<i>X</i>.<i>Y</i>.tgz).</li>
1245      <li>Run <a href='as_is/os400/'></a> on the tar file generated from the previous step.</li>
1247      <li>Change your current directory to icu/as_is/os400.</li>
1248      <li>Run <tt>qsh</tt> to build the program ICULD which ICU will use for linkage.</li>
1250      <li>Change your current directory to icu/source.</li>
1252      <li>Run <tt>'/runConfigureICU IBMi'</tt>  (See <a href="#HowToConfigureICU">configuration
1253      note</a> for details). Note that --with-data-packaging=archive and setting the --prefix are recommended, building in default (dll) mode is currently not supported.</li>
1255      <li>Run <tt>'gmake'</tt> to build ICU. (Do not use the -j option)</li>
1257      <li>Run <tt>'gmake check QIBM_MULTI_THREADED=Y'</tt> to build and run the tests.
1258      You can look at the <a href=
1259      "">
1260      iSeries Information Center</a> for more details regarding the running of multiple threads
1261      on IBM i.</li>
1262    </ol>
1264      <!-- cross -->
1265    <h3><a name="HowToCrossCompileICU" href="#HowToCrossCompileICU" id="HowToCrossCompileICU">How To Cross Compile ICU</a></h3>
1266		<p>This section will explain how to build ICU on one platform, but to produce binaries intended to run on another. This is commonly known as a cross compile.</p>
1267		<p>Normally, in the course of a build, ICU needs to run the tools that it builds in order to generate and package data and test-data.In a cross compilation setting, ICU is built on a different system from that which it eventually runs on. An example might be, if you are building for a small/headless system (such as an embedded device), or a system where you can't easily run the ICU command line tools (any non-UNIX-like system).</p>
1268		<p>To reduce confusion, we will here refer to the "A" and the "B" system.System "A" is the actual system we will be running on- the only requirements on it is are it is able to build ICU from the command line targetting itself (with configure or runConfigureICU), and secondly, that it also contain the correct toolchain for compiling and linking for the resultant platform, referred to as the "B" system.</p>
1269		<p>The autoconf docs use the term "build" for A, and "host" for B. More details at: <a href=""></a></p>
1270		<p>Three initially-empty directories will be used in this example:</p>
1271		<table summary="Three directories used in this example" class="docTable">
1272			<tr>
1273				<th align="left">/icu</th><td>a copy of the ICU source</td>
1274			</tr>
1275			<tr>
1276				<th align="left">/buildA</th><td>an empty directory, it will contain ICU built for A<br />(MacOSX in this case)</td>
1277			</tr>
1278			<tr>
1279				<th align="left">/buildB</th><td>an empty directory, it will contain ICU built for B<br />(HaikuOS in this case)</td>
1280			</tr>
1281		</table>
1283		<ol>
1284		<li>Check out or unpack the ICU source code into the /icu directory.You will have the directories /icu/source, etc.</li>
1285		<li>Build ICU in /buildA normally (using runConfigureICU or configure):
1286<pre class="samp">cd /buildA
1287sh /icu/source/runConfigureICU <strong>MacOSX</strong>
1290		</li>
1291		<li>Set PATH or other variables as needed, such as CPPFLAGS.</li>
1292		<li>Build ICU in /buildB<br />
1293			<div class="note"><b>Note:</b> "<code>--with-cross-build</code>" takes an absolute path.</div>
1294<pre class="samp">cd /buildB
1295sh /icu/source/configure --host=<strong>i586-pc-haiku</strong> --with-cross-build=<strong>/buildA</strong>
1297		</li>
1298		<li>Tests and testdata can be built with "gnumake tests".</li>
1299	</ol>
1300      <!-- end cross -->
1302    <!-- end build environment -->
1304    <h2><a name="HowToPackage" href="#HowToPackage" id="HowToPackage">How To
1305    Package ICU</a></h2>
1307    <p>There are many ways that a person can package ICU with their software
1308    products. Usually only the libraries need to be considered for packaging.</p>
1310    <p>On UNIX, you should use "<tt>gmake install</tt>" to make it easier to
1311    develop and package ICU. The bin, lib and include directories are needed to
1312    develop applications that use ICU. These directories will be created relative
1313    to the "<tt>--prefix=</tt><i>dir</i>" configure option (See the <a href=
1314    "#HowToBuildUNIX">UNIX build instructions</a>). When ICU is built on Windows,
1315    a similar directory structure is built.</p>
1317    <p>When changes have been made to the standard ICU distribution, it is
1318    recommended that at least one of the following guidelines be followed for
1319    special packaging.</p>
1321    <ol>
1322      <li>Add a suffix name to the library names. This can be done with the
1323      --with-library-suffix configure option.</li>
1325      <li>The installation script should install the ICU libraries into the
1326      application's directory.</li>
1327    </ol>
1329    <p>Following these guidelines prevents other applications that use a standard
1330    ICU distribution from conflicting with any libraries that you need. On
1331    operating systems that do not have a standard C++ ABI (name mangling) for
1332    compilers, it is recommended to do this special packaging anyway. More
1333    details on customizing ICU are available in the <a href=
1334    "">User's Guide</a>. The <a href=
1335    "#SourceCode">ICU Source Code Organization</a> section of this readme.html
1336    gives a more complete description of the libraries.</p>
1338    <table class="docTable" summary=
1339    "ICU has several libraries for you to use.">
1340      <caption>
1341        Here is an example of libraries that are frequently packaged.
1342      </caption>
1344      <tr>
1345        <th scope="col">Library Name</th>
1347        <th scope="col">Windows Filename</th>
1349        <th scope="col">Linux Filename</th>
1351        <th scope="col">Comment</th>
1352      </tr>
1354      <tr>
1355        <td>Data Library</td>
1357        <td>icudt<i>XY</i>l.dll</td>
1359        <td><i>XY</i>.<i>Z</i></td>
1361        <td>Data required by the Common and I18n libraries. There are many ways
1362        to package and <a href=
1363        "">customize this
1364        data</a>, but by default this is all you need.</td>
1365      </tr>
1367      <tr>
1368        <td>Common Library</td>
1370        <td>icuuc<i>XY</i>.dll</td>
1372        <td><i>XY</i>.<i>Z</i></td>
1374        <td>Base library required by all other ICU libraries.</td>
1375      </tr>
1377      <tr>
1378        <td>Internationalization (i18n) Library</td>
1380        <td>icuin<i>XY</i>.dll</td>
1382        <td><i>XY</i>.<i>Z</i></td>
1384        <td>A library that contains many locale based internationalization (i18n)
1385        functions.</td>
1386      </tr>
1388      <tr>
1389        <td>Layout Engine</td>
1391        <td>icule<i>XY</i>.dll</td>
1393        <td><i>XY</i>.<i>Z</i></td>
1395        <td>An optional engine for doing font layout.</td>
1396      </tr>
1398      <tr>
1399        <td>Layout Extensions Engine</td>
1401        <td>iculx<i>XY</i>.dll</td>
1403        <td><i>XY</i>.<i>Z</i></td>
1405        <td>An optional engine for doing font layout that uses parts of ICU.</td>
1406      </tr>
1408      <tr>
1409        <td>ICU I/O (Unicode stdio) Library</td>
1411        <td>icuio<i>XY</i>.dll</td>
1413        <td><i>XY</i>.<i>Z</i></td>
1415        <td>An optional library that provides a stdio like API with Unicode
1416        support.</td>
1417      </tr>
1419      <tr>
1420        <td>Tool Utility Library</td>
1422        <td>icutu<i>XY</i>.dll</td>
1424        <td><i>XY</i>.<i>Z</i></td>
1426        <td>An internal library that contains internal APIs that are only used by
1427        ICU's tools. If you do not use ICU's tools, you do not need this
1428        library.</td>
1429      </tr>
1430    </table>
1432    <p>Normally only the above ICU libraries need to be considered for packaging.
1433    The versionless symbolic links to these libraries are only needed for easier
1434    development. The <i>X</i>, <i>Y</i> and <i>Z</i> parts of the name are the
1435    version numbers of ICU. For example, ICU 2.0.2 would have the name
1436 for the common library. The exact format of the library
1437    names can vary between platforms due to how each platform can handles library
1438    versioning.</p>
1440    <h2><a name="ImportantNotes" href="#ImportantNotes" id=
1441    "ImportantNotes">Important Notes About Using ICU</a></h2>
1443    <h3><a name="ImportantNotesMultithreaded" href="#ImportantNotesMultithreaded"
1444    id="ImportantNotesMultithreaded">Using ICU in a Multithreaded
1445    Environment</a></h3>
1447    <p>Some versions of ICU require calling the <code>u_init()</code> function
1448    from <code>uclean.h</code> to ensure that ICU is initialized properly. In
1449    those ICU versions, <code>u_init()</code> must be called before ICU is used
1450    from multiple threads. There is no harm in calling <code>u_init()</code> in a
1451    single-threaded application, on a single-CPU machine, or in other cases where
1452    <code>u_init()</code> is not required.</p>
1454    <p>In addition to ensuring thread safety, <code>u_init()</code> also attempts
1455    to load at least one ICU data file. Assuming that all data files are packaged
1456    together (or are in the same folder in files mode), a failure code from
1457    <code>u_init()</code> usually means that the data cannot be found. In this
1458    case, the data may not be installed properly, or the application may have
1459    failed to call <code>udata_setCommonData()</code> or
1460    <code>u_setDataDirectory()</code> which specify to ICU where it can find its
1461    data.</p>
1463    <p>Since <code>u_init()</code> will load only one or two data files, it
1464    cannot guarantee that all of the data that an application needs is available.
1465    It cannot check for all data files because the set of files is customizable,
1466    and some ICU services work without loading any data at all. An application
1467    should always check for error codes when opening ICU service objects (using
1468    <code>ucnv_open()</code>, <code>ucol_open()</code>, C++ constructors,
1469    etc.).</p>
1471    <h4>ICU 3.4 and later</h4>
1473    <p>ICU 3.4 self-initializes properly for multi-threaded use. It achieves this
1474    without performance penalty by hardcoding the core Unicode properties data,
1475    at the cost of some flexibility. (For details see Jitterbug 4497.)</p>
1477    <p><code>u_init()</code> can be used to check for data loading. It tries to
1478    load the converter alias table (<code></code>).</p>
1480    <h4>ICU 2.6..3.2</h4>
1482    <p>These ICU versions require a call to <code>u_init()</code> before
1483    multi-threaded use. The services that are directly affected are those that
1484    don't have a service object and need to be fast: normalization and character
1485    properties.</p>
1487    <p><code>u_init()</code> loads and initializes the data files for
1488    normalization and character properties (<code></code> and
1489    <code></code>) and can therefore also be used to check for data
1490    loading.</p>
1492    <h4>ICU 2.4 and earlier</h4>
1494    <p>ICU 2.4 and earlier versions were not prepared for multithreaded use on
1495    multi-CPU platforms where the CPUs implement weak memory coherency. These
1496    CPUs include: Power4, Power5, Alpha, Itanium. <code>u_init()</code> was not
1497    defined yet.</p>
1499    <h4><a name="ImportantNotesHPUX" href="#ImportantNotesHPUX" id=
1500    "ImportantNotesHPUX">Using ICU in a Multithreaded Environment on
1501    HP-UX</a></h4>
1503    <p>If you are building ICU with a newer aCC compiler and you are planning on
1504    using the older &lt;iostream.h&gt; instead of the newer &lt;iostream&gt;, you
1505    will need to use a special configure flag before building ICU. By default,
1506    the aCC <a href="">-AA</a>
1507    flag is used on HP-UX when the compiler supports that option in order to make
1508    ICU thread safe with RogueWave and other libraries using the 2.0 Standard C++
1509    library. Your applications that use ICU will also need to use the <a href=
1510    "">-AA</a> compiler flag.
1511    To turn off this behavior in ICU, you will need to use the --with-iostream=old
1512    configure option when you first use runConfigureICU.</p>
1514    <h4><a name="ImportantNotesSolaris" href="#ImportantNotesSolaris" id=
1515    "ImportantNotesSolaris">Using ICU in a Multithreaded Environment on
1516    Solaris</a></h4>
1518    <h5>Linking on Solaris</h5>
1520    <p>In order to avoid synchronization and threading issues, developers are
1521    <strong>suggested</strong> to strictly follow the compiling and linking
1522    guidelines for multithreaded applications, specified in the following
1523    document from Sun Microsystems. Most notably, pay strict attention to the
1524    following statements from Sun:</p>
1526    <blockquote>
1527      <p>To use libthread, specify -lthread before -lc on the ld command line, or
1528      last on the cc command line.</p>
1530      <p>To use libpthread, specify -lpthread before -lc on the ld command line,
1531      or last on the cc command line.</p>
1532    </blockquote>
1534    <p>Failure to do this may cause spurious lock conflicts, recursive mutex
1535    failure, and deadlock.</p>
1537    <p>Source: "<i>Solaris Multithreaded Programming Guide, Compiling and
1538    Debugging</i>", Sun Microsystems, Inc., Apr 2004<br />
1539     <a href=
1540    ""></a></p>
1542    <h3><a name="ImportantNotesWindows" href="#ImportantNotesWindows" id=
1543    "ImportantNotesWindows">Windows Platform</a></h3>
1545    <p>If you are building on the Win32 platform, it is important that you
1546    understand a few of the following build details.</p>
1548    <h4>DLL directories and the PATH setting</h4>
1550    <p>As delivered, the International Components for Unicode build as several
1551    DLLs, which are placed in the "<i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\bin" directory. You must
1552    add this directory to the PATH environment variable in your system, or any
1553    executables you build will not be able to access International Components for
1554    Unicode libraries. Alternatively, you can copy the DLL files into a directory
1555    already in your PATH, but we do not recommend this. You can wind up with
1556    multiple copies of the DLL and wind up using the wrong one.</p>
1558    <h4><a name="ImportantNotesWindowsPath" id=
1559    "ImportantNotesWindowsPath">Changing your PATH</a></h4>
1561    <p><strong>Windows 2000/XP</strong>: Use the System Icon in the Control
1562    Panel. Pick the "Advanced" tab. Select the "Environment Variables..."
1563    button. Select the variable PATH in the lower box, and select the lower
1564    "Edit..." button. In the "Variable Value" box, append the string
1565    ";<i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\bin" to the end of the path string. If there is
1566    nothing there, just type in "<i>&lt;ICU&gt;</i>\bin". Click the Set button,
1567    then the OK button.</p>
1569    <p>Note: When packaging a Windows application for distribution and
1570    installation on user systems, copies of the ICU DLLs should be included with
1571    the application, and installed for exclusive use by the application. This is
1572    the only way to insure that your application is running with the same version
1573    of ICU, built with exactly the same options, that you developed and tested
1574    with. Refer to Microsoft's guidelines on the usage of DLLs, or search for the
1575    phrase "DLL hell" on <a href=
1576    ""></a>.</p>
1578    <h3><a name="ImportantNotesUNIX" href="#ImportantNotesUNIX" id=
1579    "ImportantNotesUNIX">UNIX Type Platform</a></h3>
1581    <p>If you are building on a UNIX platform, and if you are installing ICU in a
1582    non-standard location, you may need to add the location of your ICU libraries
1583    to your <strong>LD_LIBRARY_PATH</strong> or <strong>LIBPATH</strong>
1584    environment variable (or the equivalent runtime library path environment
1585    variable for your system). The ICU libraries may not link or load properly
1586    without doing this.</p>
1588    <p>Note that if you do not want to have to set this variable, you may instead
1589    use the --enable-rpath option at configuration time. This option will
1590    instruct the linker to always look for the libraries where they are
1591    installed. You will need to use the appropriate linker options when linking
1592    your own applications and libraries against ICU, too. Please refer to your
1593    system's linker manual for information about runtime paths. The use of rpath
1594    also means that when building a new version of ICU you should not have an
1595    older version installed in the same place as the new version's installation
1596    directory, as the older libraries will used during the build, instead of the
1597    new ones, likely leading to an incorrectly build ICU. This is the proper
1598    behavior of rpath.</p>
1600    <h2><a name="PlatformDependencies" href="#PlatformDependencies" id=
1601    "PlatformDependencies">Platform Dependencies</a></h2>
1603    <h3><a name="PlatformDependenciesNew" href="#PlatformDependenciesNew" id=
1604    "PlatformDependenciesNew">Porting To A New Platform</a></h3>
1606    <p>If you are using ICU's Makefiles to build ICU on a new platform, there are
1607    a few places where you will need to add or modify some files. If you need
1608    more help, you can always ask the <a href=
1609    "">icu-support mailing list</a>. Once
1610    you have finished porting ICU to a new platform, it is recommended that you
1611    contribute your changes back to ICU via the icu-support mailing list. This
1612    will make it easier for everyone to benefit from your work.</p>
1614    <h4>Data For a New Platform</h4>
1616    <p>For some people, it may not be necessary for completely build ICU. Most of
1617    the makefiles and build targets are for tools that are used for building
1618    ICU's data, and an application's data (when an application uses ICU resource
1619    bundles for its data).</p>
1621    <p>Data files can be built on a different platform when both platforms share
1622    the same endianness and the same charset family. This assertion does not
1623    include platform dependent DLLs/shared/static libraries. For details see the
1624    User Guide <a href="">ICU
1625    Data</a> chapter.</p>
1627    <p>ICU 3.6 removes the requirement that ICU be completely built in the native
1628    operating environment. It adds the icupkg tool which can be run on any
1629    platform to turn binary ICU data files from any one of the three formats into
1630    any one of the other data formats. This allows a application to use ICU data
1631    built anywhere to be used for any other target platform.</p>
1633    <p><strong>WARNING!</strong> Building ICU without running the tests is not
1634    recommended. The tests verify that ICU is safe to use. It is recommended that
1635    you try to completely port and test ICU before using the libraries for your
1636    own application.</p>
1638    <h4>Adapting Makefiles For a New Platform</h4>
1640    <p>Try to follow the build steps from the <a href="#HowToBuildUNIX">UNIX</a>
1641    build instructions. If the configure script fails, then you will need to
1642    modify some files. Here are the usual steps for porting to a new
1643    platform:<br />
1644    </p>
1646    <ol>
1647      <li>Create an mh file in icu/source/config/. You can use mh-linux or a
1648      similar mh file as your base configuration.</li>
1650      <li>Modify icu/source/aclocal.m4 to recognize your platform's mh file.</li>
1652      <li>Modify icu/source/ to properly set your <b>platform</b> C
1653      Macro define.</li>
1655      <li>Run <a href="">autoconf</a> in
1656      icu/source/ without any options. The autoconf tool is standard on most
1657      Linux systems.</li>
1659      <li>If you have any optimization options that you want to normally use, you
1660      can modify icu/source/runConfigureICU to specify those options for your
1661      platform.</li>
1663      <li>Build and test ICU on your platform. It is very important that you run
1664      the tests. If you don't run the tests, there is no guarentee that you have
1665      properly ported ICU.</li>
1666    </ol>
1668    <h3><a name="PlatformDependenciesImpl" href="#PlatformDependenciesImpl" id=
1669    "PlatformDependenciesImpl">Platform Dependent Implementations</a></h3>
1671    <p>The platform dependencies have been mostly isolated into the following
1672    files in the common library. This information can be useful if you are
1673    porting ICU to a new platform.</p>
1675    <ul>
1676      <li>
1677        <strong>unicode/</strong> (autoconf'ed platforms)<br />
1678         <strong>unicode/p<i>XXXX</i>.h</strong> (others: pwin32.h, ppalmos.h,
1679        ..): Platform-dependent typedefs and defines:<br />
1680        <br />
1683        <ul>
1684          <li>Generic types like UBool, int8_t, int16_t, int32_t, int64_t,
1685          uint64_t etc.</li>
1687          <li>U_EXPORT and U_IMPORT for specifying dynamic library import and
1688          export</li>
1690          <li>&lt;iostream&gt; usability</li>
1692          <li>Thread safety usability</li>
1693        </ul>
1694        <br />
1695      </li>
1697      <li>
1698        <strong>unicode/putil.h, putil.c</strong>: platform-dependent
1699        implementations of various functions that are platform dependent:<br />
1700        <br />
1703        <ul>
1704          <li>uprv_isNaN, uprv_isInfinite, uprv_getNaN and uprv_getInfinity for
1705          handling special floating point values.</li>
1707          <li>uprv_tzset, uprv_timezone, uprv_tzname and time for getting
1708          platform specific time and time zone information.</li>
1710          <li>u_getDataDirectory for getting the default data directory.</li>
1712          <li>uprv_getDefaultLocaleID for getting the default locale
1713          setting.</li>
1715          <li>uprv_getDefaultCodepage for getting the default codepage
1716          encoding.</li>
1717        </ul>
1718        <br />
1719      </li>
1721      <li>
1722        <strong>umutex.h, umutex.c</strong>: Code for doing synchronization in
1723        multithreaded applications. If you wish to use International Components
1724        for Unicode in a multithreaded application, you must provide a
1725        synchronization primitive that the classes can use to protect their
1726        global data against simultaneous modifications. We already supply working
1727        implementations for many platforms that ICU builds on.<br />
1728        <br />
1729      </li>
1731      <li><strong>umapfile.h, umapfile.c</strong>: functions for mapping or
1732      otherwise reading or loading files into memory. All access by ICU to data
1733      from files makes use of these functions.<br />
1734      <br />
1735      </li>
1737      <li>Using platform specific #ifdef macros are highly discouraged outside of
1738      the scope of these files. When the source code gets updated in the future,
1739      these #ifdef's can cause testing problems for your platform.</li>
1740    </ul>
1741    <hr />
1743    <p>Copyright &copy; 1997-2012 International Business Machines Corporation and
1744    others. All Rights Reserved.<br />
1745     IBM Globalization Center of Competency - San Jos&eacute;<br />
1746     4400 North First Street<br />
1747     San Jos&eacute;, CA 95134<br />
1748     USA</p>
1749  </body>