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README

1hostapd - user space IEEE 802.11 AP and IEEE 802.1X/WPA/WPA2/EAP
2	  Authenticator and RADIUS authentication server
3================================================================
4
5Copyright (c) 2002-2014, Jouni Malinen <j@w1.fi> and contributors
6All Rights Reserved.
7
8This program is licensed under the BSD license (the one with
9advertisement clause removed).
10
11If you are submitting changes to the project, please see CONTRIBUTIONS
12file for more instructions.
13
14
15
16License
17-------
18
19This software may be distributed, used, and modified under the terms of
20BSD license:
21
22Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
23modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
24met:
25
261. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
27   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
28
292. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
30   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
31   documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
32
333. Neither the name(s) of the above-listed copyright holder(s) nor the
34   names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products
35   derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
36
37THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
38"AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
39LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
40A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT
41OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
42SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
43LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
44DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
45THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
46(INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
47OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
48
49
50
51Introduction
52============
53
54Originally, hostapd was an optional user space component for Host AP
55driver. It adds more features to the basic IEEE 802.11 management
56included in the kernel driver: using external RADIUS authentication
57server for MAC address based access control, IEEE 802.1X Authenticator
58and dynamic WEP keying, RADIUS accounting, WPA/WPA2 (IEEE 802.11i/RSN)
59Authenticator and dynamic TKIP/CCMP keying.
60
61The current version includes support for other drivers, an integrated
62EAP server (i.e., allow full authentication without requiring
63an external RADIUS authentication server), and RADIUS authentication
64server for EAP authentication.
65
66
67Requirements
68------------
69
70Current hardware/software requirements:
71- drivers:
72	Host AP driver for Prism2/2.5/3.
73	(http://hostap.epitest.fi/)
74	Please note that station firmware version needs to be 1.7.0 or newer
75	to work in WPA mode.
76
77	madwifi driver for cards based on Atheros chip set (ar521x)
78	(http://sourceforge.net/projects/madwifi/)
79	Please note that you will need to add the correct path for
80	madwifi driver root directory in .config (see defconfig file for
81	an example: CFLAGS += -I<path>)
82
83	mac80211-based drivers that support AP mode (with driver=nl80211).
84	This includes drivers for Atheros (ath9k) and Broadcom (b43)
85	chipsets.
86
87	Any wired Ethernet driver for wired IEEE 802.1X authentication
88	(experimental code)
89
90	FreeBSD -current (with some kernel mods that have not yet been
91	committed when hostapd v0.3.0 was released)
92	BSD net80211 layer (e.g., Atheros driver)
93
94
95Build configuration
96-------------------
97
98In order to be able to build hostapd, you will need to create a build
99time configuration file, .config that selects which optional
100components are included. See defconfig file for example configuration
101and list of available options.
102
103
104
105IEEE 802.1X
106===========
107
108IEEE Std 802.1X-2001 is a standard for port-based network access
109control. In case of IEEE 802.11 networks, a "virtual port" is used
110between each associated station and the AP. IEEE 802.11 specifies
111minimal authentication mechanism for stations, whereas IEEE 802.1X
112introduces a extensible mechanism for authenticating and authorizing
113users.
114
115IEEE 802.1X uses elements called Supplicant, Authenticator, Port
116Access Entity, and Authentication Server. Supplicant is a component in
117a station and it performs the authentication with the Authentication
118Server. An access point includes an Authenticator that relays the packets
119between a Supplicant and an Authentication Server. In addition, it has a
120Port Access Entity (PAE) with Authenticator functionality for
121controlling the virtual port authorization, i.e., whether to accept
122packets from or to the station.
123
124IEEE 802.1X uses Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). The frames
125between a Supplicant and an Authenticator are sent using EAP over LAN
126(EAPOL) and the Authenticator relays these frames to the Authentication
127Server (and similarly, relays the messages from the Authentication
128Server to the Supplicant). The Authentication Server can be colocated with the
129Authenticator, in which case there is no need for additional protocol
130for EAP frame transmission. However, a more common configuration is to
131use an external Authentication Server and encapsulate EAP frame in the
132frames used by that server. RADIUS is suitable for this, but IEEE
133802.1X would also allow other mechanisms.
134
135Host AP driver includes PAE functionality in the kernel driver. It
136is a relatively simple mechanism for denying normal frames going to
137or coming from an unauthorized port. PAE allows IEEE 802.1X related
138frames to be passed between the Supplicant and the Authenticator even
139on an unauthorized port.
140
141User space daemon, hostapd, includes Authenticator functionality. It
142receives 802.1X (EAPOL) frames from the Supplicant using the wlan#ap
143device that is also used with IEEE 802.11 management frames. The
144frames to the Supplicant are sent using the same device.
145
146The normal configuration of the Authenticator would use an external
147Authentication Server. hostapd supports RADIUS encapsulation of EAP
148packets, so the Authentication Server should be a RADIUS server, like
149FreeRADIUS (http://www.freeradius.org/). The Authenticator in hostapd
150relays the frames between the Supplicant and the Authentication
151Server. It also controls the PAE functionality in the kernel driver by
152controlling virtual port authorization, i.e., station-AP
153connection, based on the IEEE 802.1X state.
154
155When a station would like to use the services of an access point, it
156will first perform IEEE 802.11 authentication. This is normally done
157with open systems authentication, so there is no security. After
158this, IEEE 802.11 association is performed. If IEEE 802.1X is
159configured to be used, the virtual port for the station is set in
160Unauthorized state and only IEEE 802.1X frames are accepted at this
161point. The Authenticator will then ask the Supplicant to authenticate
162with the Authentication Server. After this is completed successfully,
163the virtual port is set to Authorized state and frames from and to the
164station are accepted.
165
166Host AP configuration for IEEE 802.1X
167-------------------------------------
168
169The user space daemon has its own configuration file that can be used to
170define AP options. Distribution package contains an example
171configuration file (hostapd/hostapd.conf) that can be used as a basis
172for configuration. It includes examples of all supported configuration
173options and short description of each option. hostapd should be started
174with full path to the configuration file as the command line argument,
175e.g., './hostapd /etc/hostapd.conf'. If you have more that one wireless
176LAN card, you can use one hostapd process for multiple interfaces by
177giving a list of configuration files (one per interface) in the command
178line.
179
180hostapd includes a minimal co-located IEEE 802.1X server which can be
181used to test IEEE 802.1X authentication. However, it should not be
182used in normal use since it does not provide any security. This can be
183configured by setting ieee8021x and minimal_eap options in the
184configuration file.
185
186An external Authentication Server (RADIUS) is configured with
187auth_server_{addr,port,shared_secret} options. In addition,
188ieee8021x and own_ip_addr must be set for this mode. With such
189configuration, the co-located Authentication Server is not used and EAP
190frames will be relayed using EAPOL between the Supplicant and the
191Authenticator and RADIUS encapsulation between the Authenticator and
192the Authentication Server. Other than this, the functionality is similar
193to the case with the co-located Authentication Server.
194
195Authentication Server and Supplicant
196------------------------------------
197
198Any RADIUS server supporting EAP should be usable as an IEEE 802.1X
199Authentication Server with hostapd Authenticator. FreeRADIUS
200(http://www.freeradius.org/) has been successfully tested with hostapd
201Authenticator and both Xsupplicant (http://www.open1x.org) and Windows
202XP Supplicants. EAP/TLS was used with Xsupplicant and
203EAP/MD5-Challenge with Windows XP.
204
205http://www.missl.cs.umd.edu/wireless/eaptls/ has useful information
206about using EAP/TLS with FreeRADIUS and Xsupplicant (just replace
207Cisco access point with Host AP driver, hostapd daemon, and a Prism2
208card ;-). http://www.freeradius.org/doc/EAP-MD5.html has information
209about using EAP/MD5 with FreeRADIUS, including instructions for WinXP
210configuration. http://www.denobula.com/EAPTLS.pdf has a HOWTO on
211EAP/TLS use with WinXP Supplicant.
212
213Automatic WEP key configuration
214-------------------------------
215
216EAP/TLS generates a session key that can be used to send WEP keys from
217an AP to authenticated stations. The Authenticator in hostapd can be
218configured to automatically select a random default/broadcast key
219(shared by all authenticated stations) with wep_key_len_broadcast
220option (5 for 40-bit WEP or 13 for 104-bit WEP). In addition,
221wep_key_len_unicast option can be used to configure individual unicast
222keys for stations. This requires support for individual keys in the
223station driver.
224
225WEP keys can be automatically updated by configuring rekeying. This
226will improve security of the network since same WEP key will only be
227used for a limited period of time. wep_rekey_period option sets the
228interval for rekeying in seconds.
229
230
231WPA/WPA2
232========
233
234Features
235--------
236
237Supported WPA/IEEE 802.11i features:
238- WPA-PSK ("WPA-Personal")
239- WPA with EAP (e.g., with RADIUS authentication server) ("WPA-Enterprise")
240- key management for CCMP, TKIP, WEP104, WEP40
241- RSN/WPA2 (IEEE 802.11i), including PMKSA caching and pre-authentication
242
243WPA
244---
245
246The original security mechanism of IEEE 802.11 standard was not
247designed to be strong and has proved to be insufficient for most
248networks that require some kind of security. Task group I (Security)
249of IEEE 802.11 working group (http://www.ieee802.org/11/) has worked
250to address the flaws of the base standard and has in practice
251completed its work in May 2004. The IEEE 802.11i amendment to the IEEE
252802.11 standard was approved in June 2004 and this amendment is likely
253to be published in July 2004.
254
255Wi-Fi Alliance (http://www.wi-fi.org/) used a draft version of the
256IEEE 802.11i work (draft 3.0) to define a subset of the security
257enhancements that can be implemented with existing wlan hardware. This
258is called Wi-Fi Protected Access<TM> (WPA). This has now become a
259mandatory component of interoperability testing and certification done
260by Wi-Fi Alliance. Wi-Fi provides information about WPA at its web
261site (http://www.wi-fi.org/OpenSection/protected_access.asp).
262
263IEEE 802.11 standard defined wired equivalent privacy (WEP) algorithm
264for protecting wireless networks. WEP uses RC4 with 40-bit keys,
26524-bit initialization vector (IV), and CRC32 to protect against packet
266forgery. All these choices have proven to be insufficient: key space is
267too small against current attacks, RC4 key scheduling is insufficient
268(beginning of the pseudorandom stream should be skipped), IV space is
269too small and IV reuse makes attacks easier, there is no replay
270protection, and non-keyed authentication does not protect against bit
271flipping packet data.
272
273WPA is an intermediate solution for the security issues. It uses
274Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) to replace WEP. TKIP is a
275compromise on strong security and possibility to use existing
276hardware. It still uses RC4 for the encryption like WEP, but with
277per-packet RC4 keys. In addition, it implements replay protection,
278keyed packet authentication mechanism (Michael MIC).
279
280Keys can be managed using two different mechanisms. WPA can either use
281an external authentication server (e.g., RADIUS) and EAP just like
282IEEE 802.1X is using or pre-shared keys without need for additional
283servers. Wi-Fi calls these "WPA-Enterprise" and "WPA-Personal",
284respectively. Both mechanisms will generate a master session key for
285the Authenticator (AP) and Supplicant (client station).
286
287WPA implements a new key handshake (4-Way Handshake and Group Key
288Handshake) for generating and exchanging data encryption keys between
289the Authenticator and Supplicant. This handshake is also used to
290verify that both Authenticator and Supplicant know the master session
291key. These handshakes are identical regardless of the selected key
292management mechanism (only the method for generating master session
293key changes).
294
295
296IEEE 802.11i / WPA2
297-------------------
298
299The design for parts of IEEE 802.11i that were not included in WPA has
300finished (May 2004) and this amendment to IEEE 802.11 was approved in
301June 2004. Wi-Fi Alliance is using the final IEEE 802.11i as a new
302version of WPA called WPA2. This includes, e.g., support for more
303robust encryption algorithm (CCMP: AES in Counter mode with CBC-MAC)
304to replace TKIP and optimizations for handoff (reduced number of
305messages in initial key handshake, pre-authentication, and PMKSA caching).
306
307Some wireless LAN vendors are already providing support for CCMP in
308their WPA products. There is no "official" interoperability
309certification for CCMP and/or mixed modes using both TKIP and CCMP, so
310some interoperability issues can be expected even though many
311combinations seem to be working with equipment from different vendors.
312Testing for WPA2 is likely to start during the second half of 2004.
313
314hostapd configuration for WPA/WPA2
315----------------------------------
316
317TODO
318
319# Enable WPA. Setting this variable configures the AP to require WPA (either
320# WPA-PSK or WPA-RADIUS/EAP based on other configuration). For WPA-PSK, either
321# wpa_psk or wpa_passphrase must be set and wpa_key_mgmt must include WPA-PSK.
322# For WPA-RADIUS/EAP, ieee8021x must be set (but without dynamic WEP keys),
323# RADIUS authentication server must be configured, and WPA-EAP must be included
324# in wpa_key_mgmt.
325# This field is a bit field that can be used to enable WPA (IEEE 802.11i/D3.0)
326# and/or WPA2 (full IEEE 802.11i/RSN):
327# bit0 = WPA
328# bit1 = IEEE 802.11i/RSN (WPA2)
329#wpa=1
330
331# WPA pre-shared keys for WPA-PSK. This can be either entered as a 256-bit
332# secret in hex format (64 hex digits), wpa_psk, or as an ASCII passphrase
333# (8..63 characters) that will be converted to PSK. This conversion uses SSID
334# so the PSK changes when ASCII passphrase is used and the SSID is changed.
335#wpa_psk=0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef
336#wpa_passphrase=secret passphrase
337
338# Set of accepted key management algorithms (WPA-PSK, WPA-EAP, or both). The
339# entries are separated with a space.
340#wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK WPA-EAP
341
342# Set of accepted cipher suites (encryption algorithms) for pairwise keys
343# (unicast packets). This is a space separated list of algorithms:
344# CCMP = AES in Counter mode with CBC-MAC [RFC 3610, IEEE 802.11i]
345# TKIP = Temporal Key Integrity Protocol [IEEE 802.11i]
346# Group cipher suite (encryption algorithm for broadcast and multicast frames)
347# is automatically selected based on this configuration. If only CCMP is
348# allowed as the pairwise cipher, group cipher will also be CCMP. Otherwise,
349# TKIP will be used as the group cipher.
350#wpa_pairwise=TKIP CCMP
351
352# Time interval for rekeying GTK (broadcast/multicast encryption keys) in
353# seconds.
354#wpa_group_rekey=600
355
356# Time interval for rekeying GMK (master key used internally to generate GTKs
357# (in seconds).
358#wpa_gmk_rekey=86400
359
360# Enable IEEE 802.11i/RSN/WPA2 pre-authentication. This is used to speed up
361# roaming be pre-authenticating IEEE 802.1X/EAP part of the full RSN
362# authentication and key handshake before actually associating with a new AP.
363#rsn_preauth=1
364#
365# Space separated list of interfaces from which pre-authentication frames are
366# accepted (e.g., 'eth0' or 'eth0 wlan0wds0'. This list should include all
367# interface that are used for connections to other APs. This could include
368# wired interfaces and WDS links. The normal wireless data interface towards
369# associated stations (e.g., wlan0) should not be added, since
370# pre-authentication is only used with APs other than the currently associated
371# one.
372#rsn_preauth_interfaces=eth0
373

README-WPS

1hostapd and Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS)
2=======================================
3
4This document describes how the WPS implementation in hostapd can be
5configured and how an external component on an AP (e.g., web UI) is
6used to enable enrollment of client devices.
7
8
9Introduction to WPS
10-------------------
11
12Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) is a mechanism for easy configuration of a
13wireless network. It allows automated generation of random keys (WPA
14passphrase/PSK) and configuration of an access point and client
15devices. WPS includes number of methods for setting up connections
16with PIN method and push-button configuration (PBC) being the most
17commonly deployed options.
18
19While WPS can enable more home networks to use encryption in the
20wireless network, it should be noted that the use of the PIN and
21especially PBC mechanisms for authenticating the initial key setup is
22not very secure. As such, use of WPS may not be suitable for
23environments that require secure network access without chance for
24allowing outsiders to gain access during the setup phase.
25
26WPS uses following terms to describe the entities participating in the
27network setup:
28- access point: the WLAN access point
29- Registrar: a device that control a network and can authorize
30  addition of new devices); this may be either in the AP ("internal
31  Registrar") or in an external device, e.g., a laptop, ("external
32  Registrar")
33- Enrollee: a device that is being authorized to use the network
34
35It should also be noted that the AP and a client device may change
36roles (i.e., AP acts as an Enrollee and client device as a Registrar)
37when WPS is used to configure the access point.
38
39
40More information about WPS is available from Wi-Fi Alliance:
41http://www.wi-fi.org/wifi-protected-setup
42
43
44hostapd implementation
45----------------------
46
47hostapd includes an optional WPS component that can be used as an
48internal WPS Registrar to manage addition of new WPS enabled clients
49to the network. In addition, WPS Enrollee functionality in hostapd can
50be used to allow external WPS Registrars to configure the access
51point, e.g., for initial network setup. In addition, hostapd can proxy a
52WPS registration between a wireless Enrollee and an external Registrar
53(e.g., Microsoft Vista or Atheros JumpStart) with UPnP.
54
55
56hostapd configuration
57---------------------
58
59WPS is an optional component that needs to be enabled in hostapd build
60configuration (.config). Here is an example configuration that
61includes WPS support and uses madwifi driver interface:
62
63CONFIG_DRIVER_MADWIFI=y
64CFLAGS += -I/usr/src/madwifi-0.9.3
65CONFIG_WPS=y
66CONFIG_WPS_UPNP=y
67
68Following parameter can be used to enable support for NFC config method:
69
70CONFIG_WPS_NFC=y
71
72
73Following section shows an example runtime configuration
74(hostapd.conf) that enables WPS:
75
76# Configure the driver and network interface
77driver=madwifi
78interface=ath0
79
80# WPA2-Personal configuration for the AP
81ssid=wps-test
82wpa=2
83wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
84wpa_pairwise=CCMP
85# Default WPA passphrase for legacy (non-WPS) clients
86wpa_passphrase=12345678
87# Enable random per-device PSK generation for WPS clients
88# Please note that the file has to exists for hostapd to start (i.e., create an
89# empty file as a starting point).
90wpa_psk_file=/etc/hostapd.psk
91
92# Enable control interface for PBC/PIN entry
93ctrl_interface=/var/run/hostapd
94
95# Enable internal EAP server for EAP-WSC (part of Wi-Fi Protected Setup)
96eap_server=1
97
98# WPS configuration (AP configured, do not allow external WPS Registrars)
99wps_state=2
100ap_setup_locked=1
101# If UUID is not configured, it will be generated based on local MAC address.
102uuid=87654321-9abc-def0-1234-56789abc0000
103wps_pin_requests=/var/run/hostapd.pin-req
104device_name=Wireless AP
105manufacturer=Company
106model_name=WAP
107model_number=123
108serial_number=12345
109device_type=6-0050F204-1
110os_version=01020300
111config_methods=label display push_button keypad
112
113# if external Registrars are allowed, UPnP support could be added:
114#upnp_iface=br0
115#friendly_name=WPS Access Point
116
117
118External operations
119-------------------
120
121WPS requires either a device PIN code (usually, 8-digit number) or a
122pushbutton event (for PBC) to allow a new WPS Enrollee to join the
123network. hostapd uses the control interface as an input channel for
124these events.
125
126The PIN value used in the commands must be processed by an UI to
127remove non-digit characters and potentially, to verify the checksum
128digit. "hostapd_cli wps_check_pin <PIN>" can be used to do such
129processing. It returns FAIL if the PIN is invalid, or FAIL-CHECKSUM if
130the checksum digit is incorrect, or the processed PIN (non-digit
131characters removed) if the PIN is valid.
132
133When a client device (WPS Enrollee) connects to hostapd (WPS
134Registrar) in order to start PIN mode negotiation for WPS, an
135identifier (Enrollee UUID) is sent. hostapd will need to be configured
136with a device password (PIN) for this Enrollee. This is an operation
137that requires user interaction (assuming there are no pre-configured
138PINs on the AP for a set of Enrollee).
139
140The PIN request with information about the device is appended to the
141wps_pin_requests file (/var/run/hostapd.pin-req in this example). In
142addition, hostapd control interface event is sent as a notification of
143a new device. The AP could use, e.g., a web UI for showing active
144Enrollees to the user and request a PIN for an Enrollee.
145
146The PIN request file has one line for every Enrollee that connected to
147the AP, but for which there was no PIN. Following information is
148provided for each Enrollee (separated with tabulators):
149- timestamp (seconds from 1970-01-01)
150- Enrollee UUID
151- MAC address
152- Device name
153- Manufacturer
154- Model Name
155- Model Number
156- Serial Number
157- Device category
158
159Example line in the /var/run/hostapd.pin-req file:
1601200188391	53b63a98-d29e-4457-a2ed-094d7e6a669c	Intel(R) Centrino(R)	Intel Corporation	Intel(R) Centrino(R)	-	-	1-0050F204-1
161
162Control interface data:
163WPS-PIN-NEEDED [UUID-E|MAC Address|Device Name|Manufacturer|Model Name|Model Number|Serial Number|Device Category]
164For example:
165<2>WPS-PIN-NEEDED [53b63a98-d29e-4457-a2ed-094d7e6a669c|02:12:34:56:78:9a|Device|Manuf|Model|Model Number|Serial Number|1-0050F204-1]
166
167When the user enters a PIN for a pending Enrollee, e.g., on the web
168UI), hostapd needs to be notified of the new PIN over the control
169interface. This can be done either by using the UNIX domain socket
170-based control interface directly (src/common/wpa_ctrl.c provides
171helper functions for using the interface) or by calling hostapd_cli.
172
173Example command to add a PIN (12345670) for an Enrollee:
174
175hostapd_cli wps_pin 53b63a98-d29e-4457-a2ed-094d7e6a669c 12345670
176
177If the UUID-E is not available (e.g., Enrollee waits for the Registrar
178to be selected before connecting), wildcard UUID may be used to allow
179the PIN to be used once with any UUID:
180
181hostapd_cli wps_pin any 12345670
182
183To reduce likelihood of PIN being used with other devices or of
184forgetting an active PIN available for potential attackers, expiration
185time in seconds can be set for the new PIN (value 0 indicates no
186expiration):
187
188hostapd_cli wps_pin any 12345670 300
189
190If the MAC address of the enrollee is known, it should be configured
191to allow the AP to advertise list of authorized enrollees:
192
193hostapd_cli wps_pin 53b63a98-d29e-4457-a2ed-094d7e6a669c \
194	12345670 300 00:11:22:33:44:55
195
196
197After this, the Enrollee can connect to the AP again and complete WPS
198negotiation. At that point, a new, random WPA PSK is generated for the
199client device and the client can then use that key to connect to the
200AP to access the network.
201
202
203If the AP includes a pushbutton, WPS PBC mode can be used. It is
204enabled by pushing a button on both the AP and the client at about the
205same time (2 minute window). hostapd needs to be notified about the AP
206button pushed event over the control interface, e.g., by calling
207hostapd_cli:
208
209hostapd_cli wps_pbc
210
211At this point, the client has two minutes to complete WPS negotiation
212which will generate a new WPA PSK in the same way as the PIN method
213described above.
214
215
216When an external Registrar is used, the AP can act as an Enrollee and
217use its AP PIN. A static AP PIN (e.g., one one a label in the AP
218device) can be configured in hostapd.conf (ap_pin parameter). A more
219secure option is to use hostapd_cli wps_ap_pin command to enable the
220AP PIN only based on user action (and even better security by using a
221random AP PIN for each session, i.e., by using "wps_ap_pin random"
222command with a timeout value). Following commands are available for
223managing the dynamic AP PIN operations:
224
225hostapd_cli wps_ap_pin disable
226- disable AP PIN (i.e., do not allow external Registrars to use it to
227  learn the current AP settings or to reconfigure the AP)
228
229hostapd_cli wps_ap_pin random [timeout]
230- generate a random AP PIN and enable it
231- if the optional timeout parameter is given, the AP PIN will be enabled
232  for the specified number of seconds
233
234hostapd_cli wps_ap_pin get
235- fetch the current AP PIN
236
237hostapd_cli wps_ap_pin set <PIN> [timeout]
238- set the AP PIN and enable it
239- if the optional timeout parameter is given, the AP PIN will be enabled
240  for the specified number of seconds
241
242hostapd_cli get_config
243- display the current configuration
244
245hostapd_cli wps_config <new SSID> <auth> <encr> <new key>
246examples:
247  hostapd_cli wps_config testing WPA2PSK CCMP 12345678
248  hostapd_cli wps_config "no security" OPEN NONE ""
249
250<auth> must be one of the following: OPEN WPAPSK WPA2PSK
251<encr> must be one of the following: NONE WEP TKIP CCMP
252
253
254Credential generation and configuration changes
255-----------------------------------------------
256
257By default, hostapd generates credentials for Enrollees and processing
258AP configuration updates internally. However, it is possible to
259control these operations from external programs, if desired.
260
261The internal credential generation can be disabled with
262skip_cred_build=1 option in the configuration. extra_cred option will
263then need to be used to provide pre-configured Credential attribute(s)
264for hostapd to use. The exact data from this binary file will be sent,
265i.e., it will have to include valid WPS attributes. extra_cred can
266also be used to add additional networks if the Registrar is used to
267configure credentials for multiple networks.
268
269Processing of received configuration updates can be disabled with
270wps_cred_processing=1 option. When this is used, an external program
271is responsible for creating hostapd configuration files and processing
272configuration updates based on messages received from hostapd over
273control interface. This will also include the initial configuration on
274first successful registration if the AP is initially set in
275unconfigured state.
276
277Following control interface messages are sent out for external programs:
278
279WPS-REG-SUCCESS <Enrollee MAC address <UUID-E>
280For example:
281<2>WPS-REG-SUCCESS 02:66:a0:ee:17:27 2b7093f1-d6fb-5108-adbb-bea66bb87333
282
283This can be used to trigger change from unconfigured to configured
284state (random configuration based on the first successful WPS
285registration). In addition, this can be used to update AP UI about the
286status of WPS registration progress.
287
288
289WPS-NEW-AP-SETTINGS <hexdump of AP Setup attributes>
290For example:
291<2>WPS-NEW-AP-SETTINGS 10260001011045000c6a6b6d2d7770732d74657374100300020020100f00020008102700403065346230343536633236366665306433396164313535346131663462663731323433376163666462376633393965353466316631623032306164343438623510200006024231cede15101e000844
292
293This can be used to update the externally stored AP configuration and
294then update hostapd configuration (followed by restarting of hostapd).
295
296
297WPS with NFC
298------------
299
300WPS can be used with NFC-based configuration method. An NFC tag
301containing a password token from the Enrollee can be used to
302authenticate the connection instead of the PIN. In addition, an NFC tag
303with a configuration token can be used to transfer AP settings without
304going through the WPS protocol.
305
306When the AP acts as an Enrollee, a local NFC tag with a password token
307can be used by touching the NFC interface of an external Registrar. The
308wps_nfc_token command is used to manage use of the NFC password token
309from the AP. "wps_nfc_token enable" enables the use of the AP's NFC
310password token (in place of AP PIN) and "wps_nfc_token disable" disables
311the NFC password token.
312
313The NFC password token that is either pre-configured in the
314configuration file (wps_nfc_dev_pw_id, wps_nfc_dh_pubkey,
315wps_nfc_dh_privkey, wps_nfc_dev_pw) or generated dynamically with
316"wps_nfc_token <WPS|NDEF>" command. The nfc_pw_token tool from
317wpa_supplicant can be used to generate NFC password tokens during
318manufacturing (each AP needs to have its own random keys).
319
320The "wps_nfc_config_token <WPS/NDEF>" command can be used to build an
321NFC configuration token. The output value from this command is a hexdump
322of the current AP configuration (WPS parameter requests this to include
323only the WPS attributes; NDEF parameter requests additional NDEF
324encapsulation to be included). This data needs to be written to an NFC
325tag with an external program. Once written, the NFC configuration token
326can be used to touch an NFC interface on a station to provision the
327credentials needed to access the network.
328
329When the NFC device on the AP reads an NFC tag with a MIME media type
330"application/vnd.wfa.wsc", the NDEF message payload (with or without
331NDEF encapsulation) can be delivered to hostapd using the
332following hostapd_cli command:
333
334wps_nfc_tag_read <hexdump of payload>
335
336If the NFC tag contains a password token, the token is added to the
337internal Registrar. This allows station Enrollee from which the password
338token was received to run through WPS protocol to provision the
339credential.
340
341"nfc_get_handover_sel <NDEF> <WPS>" command can be used to build the
342contents of a Handover Select Message for connection handover when this
343does not depend on the contents of the Handover Request Message. The
344first argument selects the format of the output data and the second
345argument selects which type of connection handover is requested (WPS =
346Wi-Fi handover as specified in WSC 2.0).
347
348"nfc_report_handover <INIT/RESP> WPS <carrier from handover request>
349<carrier from handover select>" is used to report completed NFC
350connection handover. The first parameter indicates whether the local
351device initiated or responded to the connection handover and the carrier
352records are the selected carrier from the handover request and select
353messages as a hexdump.
354