..10-Aug-20184 KiB

DnsTlsDispatcher.cpp10-Aug-20186 KiB

DnsTlsDispatcher.h10-Aug-20184.7 KiB

DnsTlsQueryMap.cpp10-Aug-20184.2 KiB

DnsTlsQueryMap.h10-Aug-20183.4 KiB

DnsTlsServer.cpp10-Aug-20184.6 KiB

DnsTlsServer.h10-Aug-20182.4 KiB

DnsTlsSessionCache.cpp10-Aug-20182.3 KiB

DnsTlsSessionCache.h10-Aug-20182.1 KiB

DnsTlsSocket.cpp10-Aug-201816.7 KiB

DnsTlsSocket.h10-Aug-20184.9 KiB

DnsTlsSocketFactory.h10-Aug-20181.6 KiB

DnsTlsTransport.cpp10-Aug-20187.5 KiB

DnsTlsTransport.h10-Aug-20183.1 KiB

IDnsTlsSocket.h10-Aug-20181.6 KiB

IDnsTlsSocketFactory.h10-Aug-20181.3 KiB

IDnsTlsSocketObserver.h10-Aug-20181.2 KiB

README.md10-Aug-20186.6 KiB

1# DNS-over-TLS query forwarder design
3## Overview
5The DNS-over-TLS query forwarder consists of five classes:
6 * `DnsTlsDispatcher`
7 * `DnsTlsTransport`
8 * `DnsTlsQueryMap`
9 * `DnsTlsSessionCache`
10 * `DnsTlsSocket`
12`DnsTlsDispatcher` is a singleton class whose `query` method is the `dns/` directory's
13only public interface.  `DnsTlsDispatcher` is just a table holding the
14`DnsTlsTransport` for each server (represented by a `DnsTlsServer` struct) and
15network.  `DnsTlsDispatcher` also blocks each query thread, waiting on a
16`std::future` returned by `DnsTlsTransport` that represents the response.
18`DnsTlsTransport` sends each query over a `DnsTlsSocket`, opening a
19new one if necessary.  It also has to listen for responses from the
20`DnsTlsSocket`, which happen on a different thread.
21`IDnsTlsSocketObserver` is an interface defining how `DnsTlsSocket` returns
22responses to `DnsTlsTransport`.
24`DnsTlsQueryMap` and `DnsTlsSessionCache` are helper classes owned by `DnsTlsTransport`.
25`DnsTlsQueryMap` handles ID renumbering and query-response pairing.
26`DnsTlsSessionCache` allows TLS session resumption.
28`DnsTlsSocket` interleaves all queries onto a single socket, and reports all
29responses to `DnsTlsTransport` (through the `IDnsTlsObserver` interface).  It doesn't
30know anything about which queries correspond to which responses, and does not retain
31state to indicate whether there is an outstanding query.
33## Threading
35### Overall patterns
37For clarity, each of the five classes in this design is thread-safe and holds one lock.
38Classes that spawn a helper thread call `thread::join()` in their destructor to ensure
39that it is cleaned up appropriately.
41All the classes here make full use of Clang thread annotations (and also null-pointer
42annotations) to minimize the likelihood of a latent threading bug.  The unit tests are
43also heavily threaded to exercise this functionality.
45This code creates O(1) threads per socket, and does not create a new thread for each
46query or response.  However, bionic's stub resolver does create a thread for each query.
48### Threading in `DnsTlsSocket`
50`DnsTlsSocket` can receive queries on any thread, and send them over a
51"reliable datagram pipe" (`socketpair()` in `SOCK_SEQPACKET` mode).
52The query method writes a struct (containing a pointer to the query) to the pipe
53from its thread, and the loop thread (which owns the SSL socket)
54reads off the other end of the pipe.  The pipe doesn't actually have a queue "inside";
55instead, any queueing happens by blocking the query thread until the
56socket thread can read the datagram off the other end.
58We need to pass messages between threads using a pipe, and not a condition variable
59or a thread-safe queue, because the socket thread has to be blocked
60in `select` waiting for data from the server, but also has to be woken
61up on inputs from the query threads.  Therefore, inputs from the query
62threads have to arrive on a socket, so that `select()` can listen for them.
63(There can only be a single thread because [you can't use different threads
64to read and write in OpenSSL](
66## ID renumbering
68`DnsTlsDispatcher` accepts queries that have colliding ID numbers and still sends them on
69a single socket.  To avoid confusion at the server, `DnsTlsQueryMap` assigns each
70query a new ID for transmission, records the mapping from input IDs to sent IDs, and
71applies the inverse mapping to responses before returning them to the caller.
73`DnsTlsQueryMap` assigns each new query the ID number one greater than the largest
74ID number of an outstanding query.  This means that ID numbers are initially sequential
75and usually small.  If the largest possible ID number is already in use,
76`DnsTlsQueryMap` will scan the ID space to find an available ID, or fail the query
77if there are no available IDs.  Queries will not block waiting for an ID number to
78become available.
80## Time constants
82`DnsTlsSocket` imposes a 20-second inactivity timeout.  A socket that has been idle for
8320 seconds will be closed.  This sets the limit of tolerance for slow replies,
84which could happen as a result of malfunctioning authoritative DNS servers.
85If there are any pending queries, `DnsTlsTransport` will retry them.
87`DnsTlsQueryMap` imposes a retry limit of 3.  `DnsTlsTransport` will retry the query up
88to 3 times before reporting failure to `DnsTlsDispatcher`.
89This limit helps to ensure proper functioning in the case of a recursive resolver that
90is malfunctioning or is flooded with requests that are stalled due to malfunctioning
91authoritative servers.
93`DnsTlsDispatcher` maintains a 5-minute timeout.  Any `DnsTlsTransport` that has had no
94outstanding queries for 5 minutes will be destroyed at the next query on a different
96This sets the limit on how long session tickets will be preserved during idle periods,
97because each `DnsTlsTransport` owns a `DnsTlsSessionCache`.  Imposing this timeout
98increases latency on the first query after an idle period, but also helps to avoid
99unbounded memory usage.
101`DnsTlsSessionCache` sets a limit of 5 sessions in each cache, expiring the oldest one
102when the limit is reached.  However, because the client code does not currently
103reuse sessions more than once, it should not be possible to hit this limit.
105## Testing
107Unit tests are in `../tests/dns_tls_test.cpp`.  They cover all the classes except
108`DnsTlsSocket` (which requires `CAP_NET_ADMIN` because it uses `setsockopt(SO_MARK)`) and
109`DnsTlsSessionCache` (which requires integration with libssl).  These classes are
110exercised by the integration tests in `../tests/netd_test.cpp`.
112### Dependency Injection
114For unit testing, we would like to be able to mock out `DnsTlsSocket`.  This is
115particularly required for unit testing of `DnsTlsDispatcher` and `DnsTlsTransport`.
116To make these unit tests possible, this code uses a dependency injection pattern:
117`DnsTlsSocket` is produced by a `DnsTlsSocketFactory`, and both of these have a
118defined interface.
120`DnsTlsDispatcher`'s constructor takes an `IDnsTlsSocketFactory`,
121which in production is a `DnsTlsSocketFactory`.  However, in unit tests, we can
122substitute a test factory that returns a fake socket, so that the unit tests can
123run without actually connecting over TLS to a test server.  (The integration tests
124do actual TLS.)
126## Logging
128This code uses `ALOGV` throughout for low-priority logging, and does not use
129`ALOGD`.  `ALOGV` is disabled by default, unless activated by `#define LOG_NDEBUG 0`.
130(`ALOGD` is not disabled by default, requiring extra measures to avoid spamming the
131system log in production builds.)
133## Reference
134 * [BoringSSL API docs](